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N November, 1853* when I was twenty-two 
}^ars of age, I was called to a position that 
involved responsibility, energy, tact, and no 
small degree of personal risk. I duly felt the 
importance of my position, and accepted it with all the 
enthusiasm of youth, feeling highly complimented by 
the trust imposed in me, and yet not carelessly considering 
the cost. The duties of the office I was to fill called me 
to the South, and, as my mission threatened to be a disturb- 
ing one, my movements required the utmost caution. With 
a full sense, therefore, of what was required of me I 
rather impatiently awaited my orders, which came in the 
following " Letter of Instructions : ** — 

"Boston, Nov, 4, 1853. 
Mr. J. W. Smith : 

Dear Sir: — You will proceed, this afternoon, to New 
York, and report yourself at Messrs. Nay lor & Co.'s, 99 
John Street, holding yourself in readiness to leave New 
York tomorrow, by steamer to Savannah, in case our New 
York house so direct. On your arrival at Savannah you 
will call upon the house of which you will receive the 
address in New York, for later instructions by telegraph 
than we now give you. Unless these later instructions are 
to the contrary, you will proceed with the utmost despatch 
from Savannah to Brunswick. If, when you reach Bruns- 
wick, the Agnes has arrived there, deliver to the Captain 
the letter of Messrs. A. Cunningham & Sons (now in New 

York). Show him the bill of lading of the cargo, en- 
dorsed to our order, and direct him to proceed to New 
York or to Philadelphia, according to your last instructions 
and letter herewith. Should the Agnes not have arrived, 
you will please call upon Mr. John Brooks in Brunswick, 
and arrange with him to have the Agnes come to anchor 
in a safe position in the harbor of Brunswick, far enough 
away from shore to protect the captain from losing his 
crew, and return immediately to Savannah to be ready 
there to receive new instructions by mail or by telegraph. 
After the Agnes has come to anchor, let Mr. Brooks 
inform you at Savannah of the arrival, if a mail leaves 
immediately, by mail; if no reliable public conveyance 
goes, let Mr. Brooks at our expense send a special mes* 
senger to you at Savannah. The moment you hear of 
the arrival of the Agnes^ telegraph the news to Naylor & 
Co., New York, and then proceed immediately to Bruns- 
wick, deliver your letters to Capt. Scott, and show him 
our letter and bill of lading, and direct Capt. Scott to do 
what your last instructions say, be it to land the cargo 
in Brunswick, to go to New York or Philadelphia. The 
letter that lies in New York for Capt. Scott directs him 
to go to New York. It must not be delivered to him unless 
such are your last instructions. Should you have no later 
advices, by telegraph or by mail, you will act upon the 
last instructions received at New York before sailing. 
Be very particular at Savannah to inquire at telegraph 
office for messages to you. You will find a copy of this 
letter, by mail in Savannah, in case you should lose this. 

Yours most truly 

Naylor & Co." 

There must seem in this a mystery as great as that which 
surrounds the secret deliberations of national councils where 
the vital interests of a people are concerned ; and yet it 
was only regarding a cargo of railroad iron, and its aim 
was merely to protect the rights of one individual against 
the fraud or failure of another. And this brings me to the 
story of what I saw and did as agent for one of the parties 

The ship Agnesj Capt. J. Edwards Scott, owned by 
Smith, Dove & Company of Andover, Mass., was bound 
from England to Brunswick, Ga,, with a cargo of railroad 
iron (1405 tons), to be used upon a projected railroad, ex- 
tending westerly from Brunswick towards Albany, Ga., and 
New Orleans, of which only five miles had already been 
laid. Naylor & Company were the charterers of the vessel, 
and the railroad iron was sold to a New York company 
having charge of land speculations in the town of Bruns- 
wick, then striving to become a rival of Savannah in com- 
mercial importance. This company failed to meet its 
obligations, and it became necessary that steps should be 
taken to hold this property in the interest of its creditors. 
Hence my agency in the matter and the necessity for secrecy 
which lay in the fact that the builders of the road and the 
townspeople were on the quivive for the arrival of the ship, 
that construction work might be pushed without interrup- 
tion. Interference certainly promised most unpleasant 

In conformity with my " Letter of Instructions," on the 
afternoon of November 4, 1853, I started for New York, 
and, on the morning of the 5th, immediately reported my- 
self to Mr. W. L. King, the managing member of the firm 

of Naylor & Company, who gave me my final instructions 
regarding the course I was to pursue as follows : — 

"As soon as you arrive in Savannah inquire at the Post 
Office for letters and at the telegraph office for despatches, 
and see if there is any other J. W. Smith in Savannah who 
may have your letters. In telegraphing you, we shall not 
mention the name of the vessel, but if we say 'the ship,' 
you will, of course, know we mean the Agnes. Please be 
very particular, in Savannah, not to have it known that 
the object of your journey is to change the destination of 
the ship Agnes. Also please see that neither Mr. John 
Brooks, at Brunswick, or the pilot, make any mention of 
it. We will direct your letters to Joseph Warren Smith, 
Savannah. Our address is Naylor & Co., 99 John Street, 
New York. Our telegraph messages will perhaps be 
signed Naylor & Co., N. & Co., or W. L. King. On 
your arrival at Savannah, if you have time, write us, 
informing us if there is any news of the Agnes; also in- 
forming us on what days the steamboats leave Brunswick 
for Savannah. Stop at the Pulaski House, which is the 
best house there. Call upon Cohen & Fosdick, and say 
that you may have some letters sent to their care, but 
don't say that you are going to Brunswick unless you are 
obliged to do so, and upon no account tell them the object 
of your visit. We expect to telegraph you on Monday 
next at Savannah with our latest instructions. We will 
have our messages left at the telegraph office, where you 
must inquire two or three times a day." 

With these momentous instructions in my pocket I em- 
barked November S, at 4 p.m., on the steamer Augusta^ 


Captain Lyon, for Savannah, but when evening came on — 
"mother of dews" — I found that due accommodations for 
sleeping could not be provided. It was the season for 
Southern migration, even then quite extensive, and to get 
a berth was impossible. I appealed to the captain, but he 
couldn't help me any, and blamed the agents for selling 
so many tickets when they must have known there was 
not sufficient accommodation. Who ever knew an agent 
of steamboats that would not sell as long as there were 
buyers, though crowded quarters and stifled passengers 
had long been crying, " Hold ! enough "? The quarters in 
this case didn't hold enough, and so I had to make other 
arrangements for a bed, and, taking two of the settee 
cushions, I deposited myself under the saloon table, with 
my overcoat for a pillow, and passed three nights under 
most uncotniorlable trial. My condition was not as happy 
as that of the imprisoned cobbler in Pickwick who slept 
under Ats table, for he, through a fertile fancy, imagined 
himself on a four-post bedstead. But I made the best I 
could of it, and laid my case under the table for future 

Cape Hatteras did not forget to give us a shaking up, a 
sort of caper sauce not pleasant for inexperienced lambs of 
passage, who devoted their time, principally, to " casting up 
their accounts." We were accompanied all of one day by 
the steamer James Adger^ bound for Charleston, S.C., 
which vessel was but a mile distant, and it was a relief to 
feel that we were not quite alone upon the waste of waters. 

We arrived at our dock in Savannah, November 8, after 
a passage of fifty-seven hours from New York — about an 
average trip. Unaccustomed to the sea, I found it difiicult 

to overcome the tendency to roll acquired on shipboard, 
and on stepping ashore it seemed that I must have some- 
thing to hold on to ; and it was two or three days before I 
regained my "land legs/' I commenced my business at 
once, according to instructions, including a visit to the rice 
mills owned by Cohen & Fosdick, and had quite a pleas- 
ant interview with the firm. Among my new acquaintances 
at Savannah was a Mr. Raymond, a classmate of my 
cousin, Peter Smith Byers. 

November gth. I took passage on the steamer D. L. 
Adams for Brunswick, Ga., for the importance of which 
place great expectations were entertained, doomed not 
yet to be realized. These expectations were raised, in 
large part, upon hopes such as my mission was to frustrate, 
hopes built upon paper, with speculation for their base. 
About the year 1835 great efforts were made to make this 
port one of note and a rival of the city of Savannah. The 
town was handsomely laid out, upon paper, and several 
operations commenced in harmony with the avowed inten- 
tion. An immense hotel was erected, — so regarded at the 
time, — streets were outlined but never graded, sites were 
set aside for public structures, parks were contemplated, 
and wharves to accommodate an extensive commerce were 
planned ; but public expectation failed as did private en- 
terprise, and hope was at a great discount, when a new 
railroad was proposed. Its heralded advantages gave a 
stimulus to the still living ambition of the place. But, 
alas ! " the best laid schemes o' mice an* men gang aft 
agley," and, as in thousands of other cases, hope's flatter- 
ing tale was told in but one chapter. The railroad was a 
failure, and the lofty pageantry of the dream melted into 


thin air, leaving but a wreck behind. The fairy slipper 
was lost, and Cinderella had to wear her old shoes. Per- 
haps, however, some day it may be found. Let us sin- 
cerely hope so. 

When I reached Brunswick, I immediately sought out 
Mr. John Brooks to whom I had a letter of introduction. 
I was met very cordially by him, but, at the same time, he 
felt badly to know that the trouble with the Land Company 
was of such a serious nature ; nevertheless, he was ready 
to carry out instructions. I was placed in a peculiar posi- 
tion, being obliged to remain in Brunswick two days, or 
while the inland steamer should make her trip to Palatka, 
Fla., and return. At the hotel every one was talking 
about the overdue Agnes with the railroad iron. Seem- 
ingly ignorant of everything affecting their interests in the 
ship, I mixed with traders, sawmill operators, canal pro- 
jectors, land speculators, and the rest of the crowd, and 
overheard much of their conversation, concluding that, 
under the circumstances, I must keep '* mum," as I seemed 
to be the "one man power" to spoil all their calculations. 
Had my errand been known to the citizens of Brunswick, 
I should have been much safer at that time north of 
Mason and Dixon's line. However, I got in and out 
of Brunswick, having accomplished my purpose, and it 
afforded me much matter for self-congratulation when 
I could again breathe the air of heaven without fear 
of being molested. 

I remained in Savannah nearly two weeks before the 
Agnes arrived. I was made aware of her arrival by a 
knock upon the door of my room at the Pulaski House one 
morning at about 3 o'clock, the intelligence being brought 


by Captain Scott himself. He had received his letters 
from the pilot, and came to anchor in the lower bay at 
Brunswick, and, leaving his vessel in charge of the first 
officer, hastened to Savannah to learn the facts. Fortu- 
nately, I had on the previous evening received a telegram 
from New York to have the Agnes go to the wharf at 
Brunswick and discharge her cargo but to land the iron in 
bond, and for me to stay, enter the iron at the Custom 
House, and see that all instructions were carried out. 
Captain Scott left for Brunswick by the morning boat, and 
I awaited detailed instructions by letter from New York. 
After making preliminary arrangements at the Savannah 
Custom House, where Mr. Boston, the collector, assisted me 
in filling out my entry blanks, I proceeded to Brunswick, 
calling at Darien for Mabray, the collector of that district. 
I was fortunate to have made preparation, for the Agnes 
was the first ship for many years to enter Brunswick har- 
bor, and the collector was rusty in the practice of his office. 
On my arrival at Brunswick I expected to see the vessel 
made fast to the wharf; but no, she had touched upon the 
inner bar, and was then lying there. A schooner was 
brought into requisition to take off some 300 tons of her 
cargo, which lightened her so that she came off at high 
water, and proceeded up to town. The wharf that had 
been constructed especially for her proved to be not strong 
enough, for the first night that she came in contact with the 
poorly constructed fabric she broke away some sixty feet 
of it. The natives were alarmed lest the entire wharf 
should go to pieces. The timbers which were carried 
away journeyed down to Jekyl Island and back at intervals, 
occupying two or three days in transit. 


The sad news that the cargo of railroad iron was to be 
landed in bond struck dismay to the hearts of all. Though 
the true condition of the Land Company was now gener- 
ally known, some were confident that everything would 
come out right in the end. But their hopes were never 
realized. We got everything in readiness and commenced 
discharging, but it was slow work, as the vessel heeled 
over so much with the ebb and flow of the tide. A line of 
rail was laid down the (d) wharf ed wharf, and the iron 
conveyed to a suitable spot upon the shore, where it was 
neatly piled up in eight square piles about 3} feet high. 
The iron was in 12, 15, and 18 feet lengths. 

Here I had my first experience with negro labor. I man- 
aged the shore gang in the interest of Naylor & Com- 
pany ; Captain Scott and myself knew each other well, and 
we worked together admirably. My crew consisted of a 
dozen men with Eli and the mule extra, and for five weeks 
we labored together. Christmas holidays were approach- 
ing and the captain hardly knew what to do as the negroes 
would have four days to themselves at that time. We 
talked over the matter, got what we could of both gangs 
that were working, and supplemented the number with a 
few men we chanced to pick up in the town, to each of 
whom we paid, in his own right hand, a five dollar bill. 
After the holidays the old gang resumed work, being quite 
fresh after visiting their friends in the country. We had, 
as I mentioned, Eli and the mule. Eli was pretty stub- 
born sometimes, so much so that it was difficult to tell 
which was the mule. There was one negro in the gang 
who was designed for an **end man" in the Ethiopian 
world's concert, for he kept us all in good spirits. His 


name was Josh Berry — a real blackberry — and we could 
not speak to him without his boiling over with mirth. He 
was coal black, bandy-legged, and about middle-aged. 
He was a very fair barber and would have made his mark 
in tonsorial operations in any Northern city. Among the 
men were also two six-footers whom we called Jake and Jim. 
These men stood next to the platform car and received the 
pieces from the others who took them from the slings, and, 
being very stalwart, they handled the iron pieces as if 
they were fence rails. Eli occasionally would be fooling 
around the car, and I heard Jake say, just as an i8-foot 
rail was being put thereon, "Take kar, dar, Eli ; take kar ; 
ef yer don't yer'll be pawin* round in de water after dat 
mool of yourn." 

Many were the incidents connected with that memorable 
trip to Brunswick that are pleasant to recall, and some not 
so pleasant. When the iron was all landed, I presumed 
my labor in the business had ceased ; but Mr. Mabray, the 
collector, in disregard of my remonstrance that it was not 
my business to build Southern bonded warehouses, com- 
pelled me to put a wooden fence around the iron, which I 
did at a cost of eighteen dollars and fifty cents. I had 
some fun out of it, however. I remarked to the standing 
committee of the town who superintended the building of 
the fence, that perhaps the iron was in some danger of 
being eaten by the hungry swine round about, and that it 
might lie heavy on their stomachs, but if it were pig-iron, 
there would be no doubt about it, and the fence must be a 
necessity. The committee saw the irony of the remark, 
but did not rail. 

I greatly enjoyed the companionship of Captain Scott, 


while the Agnes was discharging her iron, rooming on 
board the ship at night and taking my meals at the hotel. 
Mr. Brooks's family, who also came from the captain's 
home, Wiscasset, Me., used to visit the ship, accompanied 
at times by Mr. Samuel H. Allen, a sort of lieutenant of 
Mr. Brooks, and many a pleasant evening we had together. 
There were five of Mr. Brooks's daughters all grown up, 
and I, being a young man, of course received some pretty 
hard thrusts, which, however, I managed to parry. One 
evening the chair I was sitting in came down with a tremen- 
dous crash, and I lay sprawling upon the floor. This would 
have been a settler to a timid man, and I had always fancied 
myself timid, but I wriggled through the difficulty like an 
eel, and, rising to my feet, I repeated to the young ladies 
the old saying: ''Love in a tub and the bottom fell out." 
This created a laugh, and mortification flew off in the 
explosion. I have often since said, when speaking of the 
foregoing, that if one can only break the spell of bashful- 
ness — even though he break a chair to do it — he is all 
right, and the tide turns in his favor. 

There was a canal project, to the digging of which I 
have already alluded, that was to unite the waters of the 
Altamaha river with the arm of the sea a few miles above 
Brunswick, by which lumber was to be brought from the 
country above and floated down the canal, connecting with 
deep water at Brunswick, but the bottom dropped out of 
the project as disastrously as did that of the tub above 
alluded to, under pressure, and I opine that Mr. Collins 
made more money from renting his canal negroes to dis- 
charge the Agnes than he did from profits of the ditch that 
never was dug. The entire movement to make Brunswick 


a big commercial city, a centre for trade in Southern 
products, to be connected by rail and boat with the Gulf 
cities, went down as decidedly as I did in the crushed chair, 
perhaps to rise again under better auspices, as I did. But 
the building up of new places and the resuscitating of old 
ones are not works of speedy accomplishment. Enter- 
prise must give the momentum and time prove kind. This 
same arm of the sea that Brunswick is situated upon was 
once thought of as a Southern naval station, the water 
being so deep. 

I made the acquaintance of quite a number of the citi- 
zens of Brunswick, who paid me marked attention, still 
clinging to the hope that though the iron was bonded it 
would eventually be devoted to the purpose for which it 
was intended. Among those with whom I became most 
intimate was a merchant named Friedlander, a German 
from New York, who had come South with a large stock of 
clothing, Yankee notions, etc., to make his fortune. I 
speak of him, in particular, because the acquaintance thus 
commenced was renewed after a long lapse of time, as 
mentioned in a subsequent narrative. There was a news- 
paper in the place which gave weekly an account of the 
progress of business matters, the landing of the bonded 
iron among the rest. There was a great deal of grum- 
bling among the people that the iron was not laid down at 
once, as they expected, but no violence was threatened. 
They seemed to be lulled by a faint idea that the rails 
would be released eventually, and the road would be com- 
pleted, or at least advanced till the interior of the State was 
gained, and thereby facilitate the moving of cotton to the 
seaboard for shipment to Europe. Unfortunately the 


money bases of all the public business operations of Bruns- 
wick were not of a sound character ; speculation languished 
and hope fled. 

It was very strange that Mr. John Brooks did not 
come in for a share of abuse, as he was the one above all 
others who knew about the condition of the New York 
land and railroad speculators and withheld it from the 
people. It would have taken but a very little stirring to 
awaken a profound sensation against him and me, but the 
opportunity went by and nothing was done. I associated 
intimately at the hotel with people most interested in the 
fortunes of the new town in which this proposed railroad 
was a very important factor, among whom was Mr. Helm, 
who had a good deal of money staked in various ways. 
Another one, Collins, was engaged in digging a canal, 
employing a large number of negroes of whom we hired 
the most of our men required for discharging cargo. I 
left the bonded iron, after I had built the fence round 
it, in charge of a Mr. Bourke, who was appointed deputy 
collector under Mr. Mabray. 

When the ship lay on the bar previous to her coming 
up to the wharf, she was visited by quite a number of the 
town's people, who had not seen for twenty years so 
large a ship in Brunswick harbor. The harbor is a very 
pretty one, and the view from the spot where the Agnes 
lay towards Jekyl and St. Simon's Islands was truly 
charming. These islands are handsomely wooded, and 
St. Simon's, with its beautifully proportioned beacon, is an 
object of pleasure not often met on the Southern coast. 
Game of almost every description abounds upon these 
islands, and not infrequently deer are captured there. The 


entrance to the harbor lies between St. Simon's and Jekyl 
Islands, and is comparatively narrow, rendering the har- 
bor one of complete protection against storms. Oysters 
in great abundance literally line the creeks in the vicinity, 
and, though small, they are quite palatable and rich. 
Ducks in myriads inhabit these waters, and any day large 
numbers can be seen either flying over or swimming the 
creeks at high water. Sea Island cotton is produced on 
some of the other islands, and on one there is a plantation 
where a force of 500 negroes is employed. 

Inland steamers were at that time plying twice a week 
between Savannah and Jacksonville, Fla. An opposition 
line had just been started, and my first passage was by 
this line on the D. L. AdamSy having bidden my Bruns- 
wick friends " Farewell ! to all a kind farewell," not deem- 
ing it probable that I should ever see any of them again. 
That trip was to me a novel one. Leaving Savannah, we 
passed down the Savannah river a number of miles into 
the Warsaw, then up by Thunderbolt and Bonaventura ; 
but, although we had actually traveled fifteen miles by 
boat we were then only four miles, ''as the crow flies," 
from Savannah, so crooked was our path through the low 
marshy lands seaward from the city. Continuing on, we 
passed through sounds and creeks and narrow rivers, some 
so narrow and shallow that two steamboats cannot pass 
each other, and, not infrequently, the boats ground, lying 
in the mud over one tide. When they get fast to the 
soft bottom all efforts, of course, are made to get them 
off, the most effectual being to send a boat ahead, manned 
by half a dozen negroes, who, taking a stout rope with 
them, fasten it to a long pole thrust deeply down into the 


soft mud in a slanting position, and then attach the other 
end of the rope to the capstan on board the steamer ; that, 
turned by the aid of the engines, soon drags them out of 
the mud. We grounded in the Mud river at half tide but 
could not bring the above method into requisition because 
the stream was so wide. For some miles the tide went 
out and left us as high and dry as if we had been in the 
middle of a prairie. I tried to see for myself how far I 
could thrust a pole into the mud, and, taking one about 
20 feet long, I forced it down, by my own strength, from 
12 to 15 feet. We were released when the water returned 
to half tide, and went on our way rejoicing. I truly said 
that this route was a novel one. Now we would be shut 
into a narrow stream and then we would come out again 
almost into the open sea. It was varied enough, but the 
variety afforded very little amusement. Darien, at which 
port we stopped, wore quite a busy aspect, and a number of 
schooners were loading with lumber for Southern Georgia. 
The famous cypress tree grew luxuriantly all along our 
route, its sombre drapery waving in the wind, giving a 
sort of funereal aspect to the scene. "Dug-outs" are 
made from the trunks of the cypress, and some of them 
are very tastily finished. I witnessed a race, subsequently, 
upon the Savannah river, between several "dug-outs," 
all manned by sturdy negroes from the island plantations. 
Dubigon, a rich planter on one of the islands near Bruns- 
wick, was very fond of this kind of sport, and always 
proud if his " boys " — all negroes are " boys " down South — 
were the winners of the race. 

Returning to Savannah, to await messages from New 
York, I had as much opportunity afforded me for seeing 


Southern city life as limited time allowed. Stopping at the 
Pulaski House, the best in the city, I met many of the first 
citizens whom business or pleasure called to the hotel. 
The house was owned and managed by Colonel Will- 
berger, assisted by a Mr. McKenzie of Philadelphia, with 
James Oakes of New York as steward. Two steamship 
lines were running to and from New York and Philadel- 
phia. I was quite intimate with Captain Lyon of the 
Augusta steamer. Through Cohen & Fosdick, to whose 
care my letters had been directed, I made quite a number 
of valuable acquaintances ; prominent among them were 
Mr. Hertz of Cohen & Hertz ; Paddleford & Fay, Phila- 
delphia steamship agents, and Claghorn & Cunningham, 
general merchants and ship chandlers. I was indebted 
to Mr. Boston, collector of the port, for valuable services 
and advice in connection with the discharge of the Agnes^s 

Savannah is a very pretty city, pleasantly situated upon 
a bluff overlooking sea and country at elevated points, the 
cupola of the Exchange commanding a fine view of both. 
Agreeable surroundings, therefore, with pleasant compan- 
ionship, made my sojourn in Savannah very satisfactory. 
I was invited out to dine several times, and, of course, had 
an opportunity for seeing something of the inside of South- 
ern society. I was at Mr. Hertz's one day at dinner when 
the subject of slavery was introduced. '* Well, Mr. Smith, ** 
said my host, ''you see how I am situated. It is perfectly 
natural for me to hold slaves, for I inherited the two or three 
that I own from my father. They were brought up, -as it 
were, in the family, with this difference ; I as master, they 
as slaves. The right and wrong of the matter does not 


trouble me, as I know nothing beyond what actually 
exists. They, of course, are my property, according to 
the law of the land, which acknowledges slaves as prop- 
erty that can be bought and sold." I let him do all the 
talking on the subject, although I indulged my own 
thought. Kindness was the rule extended to me every- 
where, in spite of my damaging errand, and I felt grateful 
for the attentions shown a stranger. Hospitality is the pre- 
vailing sentiment at the South, as far as my narrow experi- 
ence enables me to testify. I was happy in this, made 
more so by the reflection that I had so well achieved my 
success in performing the important office with which I 
had been intrusted. It was a young man's first responsi- 
ble business, and I may well be pardoned for feeling proud 
that confidence in me had not been misplaced. 

One gentleman in Savannah, Mr. Mitchell, from Port- 
land, Me., cotton buyer for Cohen & Fosdick, evinced 
much interest in me, as did a Scotchman by the name of 
Galloway, because I was from Scotch stock. Mr. Gallo- 
way gave me a very cordial welcome, and, in the enjoy- 
ment of such kindnesses as were manifested by him and 
others, the threat of homesickness while waiting was ban- 
ished, and I wrote to friends at home in the most cheerful 
spirit. I remained in Savannah partly to settle up mat- 
ters, but more particularly to await the arrival of the Agfies^ 
about which I had begun to feel anxious, as it was only a 
day or two's sail from Brunswick to Savannah. She was 
more than a week in making the passage, for she had 
nothing in her but ballast and was blown far off the coast. 
Upon arrival she went on the berth and loaded cotton for 


I embarked for home in the steamship Keystone State^ 
Captain Hardie, for Philadelphia, and, after a rather dis- 
agreeable passage, we reached Delaware Bay ; the rain 
ceased, but the weather was so thick that the captain had 
to creep into the bay by soundings only. After we were 
fairly in the bay, it cleared up and a regular northwester 
blew right square in our teeth. The weather had been 
'• soft," but during the night everything was frozen up in 
Philadelphia as hard as granite. I found it the same in 
New York and on my way home through Connecticut. I 
felt it the keener because, when I left Savannah, the ther- 
mometer showed 70° above, while on my arrival home, it 
revealed the startling figure of 30° below zero. So wide 
a difference could hardly be fancied possible. As I 
remember, it was an exceptional year for coldness, and I 
suffered exceedingly from the sudden change. 



N the 15th of February, 1878, a party of four, 
comprising George W. Coburn and self and the 
"belter half" of each, left Boston for Florida, 
over the New York & New England railroad. 
The trip to Harlem river was made with ease and com- 
fort, and there, embarking on the great transfer steamer 
Maryland^ we made the circuit of New York city to 
Jersey City, where we were to take cars for the " sunny 
South." On our way we passed "Hell Gate," properly 
named, where the recent explorations had been made by 
government engineers with a view to deepening the chan- 
nel (long so perilous for commerce), and enabling sailing 
vessels to pass with safety. The plan of the engineers 
was to tunnel through the solid rock under the bed of the 
river, and then by electricity explode a mine of dynamite 
there laid, letting the debris down into the cavity below. 
A herculean task, but what cannot science accomplish I 
We passed Blackwell's Island, that great receptacle of 
crime and degradation, but so grand and orderly in all 
its arrangements; and under the great wire bridge that 
connects New York with Brooklyn — a gigantic enter- 
prise, I noted great changes in East and North rivers 
that had occurred since my first visit over thirty years 
before, but the greatest change of all was in respect to 
shipping. Then forests of masts extended along the en- 


tire water front from East river round to the Hudson, 
and the harbor was full of vessels at anchor waiting for 
dockage. Now sailing vessels are almost abandoned for 
steamers, and from the Battery to Pier Fifty and above is 
a cordon of ocean steamers and coast and river boats. 
Then the only ocean steamers were the Cunarders — the 
old side-wheelers — whose red chimneys I still recognized ; 
now elegant steam propellers make their way to every 
quarter of the globe, weaving commercial webs as the 
good Scotch housewife weaves her web of *' braw seven- 
teen hunder linen." A dozen lines of steamers now ply 
across the vast " herring pond," and each day, especially 
Saturday, witnesses the departure of numbers of them for 
their " march over the mountain wave " to their destination 
abroad. The Battery, which had been neglected for many 
years, I found greatly improved. 

We were on time at Jersey City, and there took sleep- 
ing cars for Richmond — or we didn't exactly, for though 
a telegram to Boston had said it was all right, we found 
it all wrong, as four upper berths had been assigned 
to our party, the tenants on the lower floor unknown. 
Upon demanding our rights, the "gentlemanly Porter," 
with the importance of his position, replied, "Yes, sar, 
dar am foah upper berths at your service, sar," and 
that was the best he would do, notwithstanding all our re- 
monstrances. We had seats in the sleeping car until we 
reached Philadelphia, when we found two of the sections 
reserved for Philadelphia not taken down. We were 
right on hand and made up our minds that if we could not 
have what we had first engaged we would break our jour- 
ney and remain in Philadelphia over night and start again 


next morning. No thanks were due from us to the rail- 
road officials, who didn't seem to interest themselves in 
our behalf. In this condition of things a pleasant bit of a 
joke occurred at my expense. We spoke to the conductor 
and asked him what he thought regarding the prospect of 
our obtaining sections at Philadelphia. George was stand- 
ing in the aisle, and I was sitting with my cape on. The 
conductor said if we were on time at Philadelphia the 
train would wait there fifteen minutes, but if behind time we 
would get away as soon as possible, and he suggested our 
going to the office when we arrived, and finding out whether 
the sleeping-car tickets were taken. Then, turning to 
George, he said: "You had better go, as you can go up 
and back so much quicker than the old gentleman can." 
We got our sections, "on to Richmond," and it was very 
comical to see and hear what was transpiring all about us. 
First there was the porter, a dignitary of more importance 
than the President of the road, the embodiment of Pomp^ 
which perhaps was his name, though he kept dark about 
it. The consequence he gave to every act was amusing. 
The making up of the beds was a fine art in which he 
luxuriated. He had an assistant who did the work, but 
the looking on was very laborious. He was polite and 
attentive, but patronizing to everybody. I was made more 
appreciative of his weight during the night, when he tum- 
bled over upon me, and I thought the roof of the car had 
fallen in. Many of the passengers could not sleep, and 
they seemed disposed to prevent the rest from doing so. 
Half-suppressed conversations between the upper and 
lower berths, tittering and spleeny soliloquies, restless 
turning and growling, looking after baggage, calls upon 


the porter for water, children cr3ring, one voice asking 
''Wife, did you bring them pills?" — these and all the 
usual attendants upon a night ride were there ; and I lay 
quietly and laughed. By ii o'clock, one by one the 
sounds ceased, and a new feature manifested itself — the 
nose. Then occurred a nasal concert of unsurpassed qual- 
ity that was heard even above the rushing of the cars. 
Every variety of snoring asserted itself, from the loud snort 
of the masculine snorer to the gentle cadence of feminine 
capacity with a soporific tendency. But gradually the car 
settled itself to sleep, the porter standing like a dark senti- 
nel over his recumbent charge. The train moved on very 
smoothly all night, although we were a little behind time, 
and, the engine giving out, we were delayed two hours 
until another locomotive came to our relief. I called the 
iw^iV Sitting Bull." 

We arrived at Richmond at 9 o'clock a.m., an hour late, 
and drove immediately to the ''Ballard & Exchange." 
The drivers were the most comical Jehus in ebony that I 
had ever seen and, thanks to the dispensation of freedom, 
such as these are the only drivers in the South now. After 
washing away the traces of the night ride and taking 
breakfast, we took carriage to make the best of our time 
while in the city. We had a very intelligent driver, with 
a broad streak of comicality about him, who took us first 
to Libby Prison, that noted place of suffering in which, 
we were told, seven hundred of our Union soldiers were 
confined at one time during the War of the Rebellion. 
It is a tobacco factory now, though some rooms in other 
parts of the building are devoted to other purposes. In 
one of these a guano factory was in operation, but we did 


not linger there very long. Our next visit was to ** Castle 
Thunder," and well called, for it must have been thunder- 
ing rough for our boys to be imprisoned there. From here 
we were taken out of the city to see the earthworks thrown 
up by the Confederates for the defence of Richmond, 
which were very formidable and not easy to master if held 
by determined spirits. Fortunately the " cruel war is over," 
and the mounds remain only as reminders of sad scenes 
that "might have been." 

We were shown a house upon the site of which Poca- 
hontas is alleged to have saved the life of Capt. John 
Smith. There are probably other places that make the 
same claim, but the house was a voucher that carried some 
conviction with it, as did the house of Mary of Magdala as 
seen by Mark Twain who knew she must have lived there 
because he saw the house. We drove next to the Union 
Soldiers' Cemetery, a most interesting point for a Northerner 
to visit, where most of the large number buried are unknown 
— a sad thought I The fortifications contiguous have been 
levelled to a great extent and the land turned to its original 
uses. Such are time's changes. We took in Washington's 
headquarters en route^ but the Father of his Country had 
so many headquarters that they possess little interest. We 
enjoyed more a view of Richmond from one of the high hills 
in the vicinity, where a very fine panorama was presented. 
An interesting relic was pointed out — the little St. John's 
church where Patrick Henry made his fiery speech against 
the bishops, as every schoolboy will remember. 

Returning to Richmond, the Memorial Church is an edi- 
fice built upon the site of the Richmond Theatre which was 
burnt many years ago with great sacrifice of life. I think 


the governor of the state was one of the victinnis. Jeff 
Davis's residence and that of General Lee on Main street 
are pointed out to visitors. The Richmond Theatre is lo- 
cated on Broad street, one of the principal thoroughfares. 
I saw Sothern here in his character of the " Crushed Tra- 
gedian," and I could not help contrasting him with the 
crushed Davis; Sothern was playing his part, but the 
other's part was a terrible verity. 

The business of Richmond was almost ruined by the war, 
but it has recovered to a great extent. It met with a severe 
trial, in November, 1878, when a tremendous flood swelled 
the James so that it overflowed its bounds and did great 
damage to Richmond and all the country round about, but 
there is more energy there than in many other Southern 
cities, and Richmond is picking up what it has lost. There 
is considerable shipping at Richmond, and the bridge over 
the James is a structure of which the city may well be 
proud. On our way around the place, I called upon 
Messrs. Putny & Watts, and Mr. Watts gave me a history 
of his fortunes when the war broke out. He was born at 
the North and his sympathies were with the Union. He 
bought up all the Northern funds he could find, including 
a bill of exchange on England for one thousand pounds 
sterling, which he held for negotiation, though suffering 
much from the oppression of his neighbors. Francis 
Dane and F. Jones were among his best friends through 
all his trouble. He showed himself, amid all, a true man, 
and his business integrity was unimpeached. 

Among many other points of interest the road was pointed 
out by which the Union army entered Richmond, the cha- 
grin of the people being manifested by dilapidated fences, 


not since restored. There was a Partingtonian tendency 
that I gravely noticed in our driver's conversation, and I 
did not dare to smile when '* paralyzed " road was spoken 
of, or ^ calvary " for cavalry. Many of the streets are very 
steep, and up on the summit of Libby Hill a park is being 
laid out that promises well for the people as a breathing 
place, if they don't lose their breath in getting up to it. 
We went on to " Church Hill," the top of which commands 
a charming view. 

There are fine public buildings, private residences, and 
rare sculpture in Richmond, though sidewalks are limited. 
The Medical Institute is of the Egyptian style of archi- 
tecture, and very imposing. On the principal streets are 
the residences of the wealthy before the war, but now the 
occupancy has materially changed. We went into the 
Capitol grounds and saw the superb equestrian statue of 
Washington, so much admired, surrounded by statues of 
Virginia statesmen : Patrick Henry, Lewis, Mason, Mar- 
shall, Jefferson, Nelson. That of Henry Clay, a Vir- 
ginian by birth, is by itself. Stonewall Jackson's statue 
has also been placed in these grounds. We visited the 
Capitol, and heard the ** senator from Middlesex," Mr. 
Blain, speak upon the state tax bill. The House was also in 
session and we saw the congregated wisdom of the state at 
work. Such bodies are pretty much the same everywhere. 

The state library contains many articles of great interest. 
These comprise many revolutionary relics, and the late 
war supplies a far larger number, Virginia battle flags 
and the Confederate seal being conspicuous. Portraits of 
distinguished statesmen from the North figure with those 
of elsewhere. Jeff Davis and General Stuart were promi- 


nent, and a bust of Stonewall Jackson graced the collec- 
tion. Among the ancient relics were letters from Wash- 
ington, when he was twelve years old, and a letter he 
wrote but two weeks before his death. The Capitol itself 
is a very fine building. 

Queer sights and sounds beset one at every turn in 
Richmond — queer to the stranger, who contrasts every- 
thing with what he has left behind him. ''Worm snacks 
at all hours " attracts the epicure. The wagons are queer, 
with their canvas tops and funny looking darkey drivers, 
the mules in keeping with the rest of the turnout ; but the 
canvas backs (ducks) one meets with here belong to a 
different sort of ''waggin'" — that of the maxillary pro- 
cess — from which the darkey is omitted. There is a 
sense of insecurity in the best of the public carriages, and 
one feels, when riding, as if the bottom must speedily drop 
out, and if to walk one is inclined, he is followed by two 
or three darkies desirous of carrying something for him, 
if he has only a cane in sight. 

The Ballard & Exchange, where we were staying, was 
a very fair house, though not up to the Northern standard, 
and was well patronized. Among the guests I observed a 
little man whom I recalled as one I had seen in the Senate 
chamber. He was a smart little man, but he was prone to 
indulge too much in stimulants. On the Sunday morning 
of our stay, I was going down to the office when I met 
him, and he was tending the same way, but, I judged, for 
a different object. He was very polite, and, taking my 
arm, he said, '* We will walk down together." I told him 
I was obliged to wait there for some of my party — a " get 
off," I confess. I saw he was a little " under the weather," 


and immediately I heard a darkey laugh. I walked along 
the passage and asked the grinning Anthracite what he 
was laughing at. "Why, sar," said he, "dat gemman 
wanted you to help him down stair. He axes me to some- 
times, and when I says to him 'Whar's yer servant?' he 
says to me, ' I discharge him, 'cause it won't do to hab two 
drunken men at de same time to look arter each oder.' 
Yah, yah, yah." 

I called on Mr. Warren Curtis, an old Andover friend, 
who was an apprentice with Smith & Dove forty years 
ago. He has lived in Richmond more than thirty years, 
and was burnt out during the war, but has since rebuilt. 
It was a mutual pleasure to meet after the long separation. 

Attending an African church at Richmond was quite an 
event, and our party fully appreciated it. There are dark 
preachers who come North, sometimes, but they come as 
missionaries, and are men of education, with no color of 
difference between themselves and their pale-faced breth- 
ren except the cuticle. But here was a genuine " African " 
preacher, though born in Virginia, with all the peculiari- 
ties of his class, and he was at his best. The church is 
the first colored society established in Richmond, and now 
numbers some three thousand members. They have a 
very large place of worship, and there is a good attend- 
ance, the congregation varying in complexion from light 
cream color to coal black. They are very attentive to 
strangers, as we experienced. The preacher. Rev. Mr. 
Holmes, gave, as his text, " Meditate on these things ; " 
and he dwelt upon his subject with great impressiveness, at 
times vehemently, moving his customary hearers as only 
that class of negro can be moved. 


"Bredren and sisters," said he, "what am meditation? 
ni tell you what meditation am. When you hev got knowl- 
edge of the spirit of God, then your soul feeds upon it, and 
dis am meditation. You must all come to de church, and 
get good, and den you can go to heben and meditate dar. 
You can't meditate properly at home, 'cept you hev been 
to de house ob de Lawd, 'cause you 'gage in secular 
work. Why, my brudders and sisters, your pastor was 
mortified when he was coming to church dis yer morning. 
I saw a brudder carryin* home a bunch of fish ! Now he 
ought to hev been going to church, an* his chilVen to de 
Sunday School ; an' his wife can't come cos she's got to 
clean dem fish for his breakfast. My sisters and brudders, 
meditate on dese tings. Many stay from de church becos 
dey's lazy, and don't want to come. De Lawd won't bless 
you if you stay at home. Now if you want de Lawd's bless- 
ing you must come to de church. You may fool some 
of de people, but you can't fool de Lawd. My bredren, 
meditate on dese tings. Sometimes, my bredren, you 
meet some one you know upon de street, and he don't see 
you. Den you tink, mebbe, dat he means ter cut yer. 
But, my bredren, he may be lookin' higher dan de grub- 
bing tings ob dis world, and his mind away up among de 
clouds, ameditatin', yes, ameditatin' on de blessed Lawd, 
an' such like tings. But, my bredren, if you see a man 
dodging round de street corner, cos he don't want ter see 
you, dat am anoder ting. My bredren, meditate on dese 

When, reading the Bible lesson, he came to the text, 
"Bodily exercise profiteth nothing," he thus explained it: 
"Now bredren, dat means dat jumping Christians ar ob no 


'count. Dey jump deir religion all out ob dem in dis 
world and hab nothing left for de next," The singing 
was good. 

In the evening we went again to the same church, and 
heard another preacher, in a very good sermon, but lack- 
ing the native vim of that in the morning. At its close Mr. 
Holmes took the floor : 

''Belubbed Bredren and Sisters," he said, "we want to 
hab a registration ob all de members of dis yer church. 
Dere are between two and free thousand, and de records 
am all lost. Now we are goin' to commence on Monday 
mornin' wid de names, an' I want you all to follow each 
other as fast as you can an' get through dis work ob de 
Lawd's people, an' when you put your name down on de 
enrolment list, I want you all to bring twenty-five cents 
'cause yer know dat we hab got a great work to do, an* 
de church ain't done finished yet. So you must all come 
prepared to gib twenty-five cents when yer put yer name 
down. Some ob de members say to your beloved preacher, 
de odder day, dat it won't do to ax dem for twenty-five 
cents. If yer do, dey say, you cut loose some ob yer best 
members. But, belubbed brudders an' sisters, if twenty- 
five cents is goin' to keep de members from de blessed 
Lawd, den dem's de kind who don't want Jesus, and de 
kind we want to go. We don't want nuffin' to do wid 'em." 

Next day (Monday) we left Richmond for Atlanta, 
Ga., and had a Pullman sleeper all to ourselves. We had 
plenty of room to "lie around loose" in all day, passing 
through Greensboro' and Charlotte. We stopped at the 
latter place for supper, but C. said he guessed he wouldn't 
eat anything hearty, and would be satisfied with a Char- 


lotte Russe. Upon this a feminine member of the party, 
who felt like retiring, said : '' I guess I'll take a Charlotte 
Roast," which was not amiss, considering the high temper- 
ature of the car. The car was a drawing room by day 
and a sleeper by night, and as we had it all to ourselves, 
with one Porter to four of us, we got along about as we 
pleased. It was startling, somewhere near midnight at a 
momentary stopping place, to hear a voice obtrude upon 
our stillness shouting, "Are there any drummers on to- 
night?" I think that some drummer had gone over the 
road wheedling Southern credulity, and some of his vic- 
tims, of whom this energetic inquirer was a committee 
of one, were lying in wait for his return. The question 
was novel, certainly, under the circumstances. 

We arrived at Atlanta, Ga., in the morning, but made 
a short stay there, improving our opportunity, however, to 
visit the Atlanta Colored College of which Rev. Dr. 
Bumstead is principal assisted by Messrs. Ware and 
Fuller. The college has two hundred students, of whom 
good report is made. The inexhaustible black driver 
with his customary characteristics is here a prime neces- 
sity, for Atlanta, though "large and respectable," like a 
rural caucus, is muddy. 

We left, at 2.05 p.m., for Macon, Ga., riding by a 
peach orchard of four hundred acres, but with little pre- 
senting itself worthy of note. We could not but observe 
the apparent absence of industry and thrift that leaves this 
glorious country in a condition almost barbaric and the 
architecture in such marked contrast with that of the 
North. Many scenes reminded us of the now defunct 
" system ; " patriarchal mansions embowered in trees and 


the shabby negro huts surrounding them forcibly em- 
phasized the disparity between the classes who now dwell 
here on terms of political equality, the " nigger's " vote 
now as good as his old **massa's." 

We made a brief stop at Macon, spending the night at 
the Brown's Hotel, — Brown the standard color here, — 
and left at 7.30 next morning for Brunswick. The quaint 
negro huts had at least three at every outlook who showed 
remarkable interest in what was going on as the cars 
moved by. A newsboy came in with papers. '^Hab a 
paper, sar,"he said to George. ** No," replied George, **! 
can't read." '' Can't read 1 " yelled the darkey ; *• I bet yer 
ken. I know by yer looks dat you'se all ken." This was 
a compliment to intelligent looks, the moral of which is 
that everybody should try to look intelligent, if he isn't. 
At Macon the waiters were not particularly clean, for 
which one was taxed by a member of our party. ''No, 
sar," said he, "zactly so, sar; but dis isn't our year to 
wash, sar." He must have meant it, though the rascal 

Between Macon and Brunswick every point was of 
especial interest to me, revealing vast improvement since 
my visit here in 1853, when, as a young man, I performed 
such an important business part. Then the country was lit- 
erally wild and covered with scarcely anything but timber. 
As we passed along, the hand of improvement was distin- 
guished everywhere, although a devastating war had seri- 
ously retarded enterprise. The old feeling of depression 
that then prevailed had lifted, and a bright aspect rested 
upon everything, which I was glad to see, it was in such 
marked contrast with the former state of things. Lumber 


and turpentine seemed to make the prevailing business 
along the route, and there were excellent facilities for 
transportation to the coast, where shipments were made to 
foreign ports, with Brunswick the port of clearance. 
Nearing Brunswick, we passed the junction where the 
Savannah & Jacksonville road crosses at Jessup, and 
soon arrived upon the scene of my former experience 
twenty-five years before. We took quarters with Mr. 
Moore, the hotel where I previously stopped having been 
burned down during the war through the recklessness of 
Confederate pickets who occupied it. 

After tea on the day of our arrival, George and I went 
out to make calls and see the place. I had, while going 
from the railroad station to our resting places, noted many 
changes in the condition of things. Everything was 
strange to me except the " lay of the land," and I failed to 
see any familiar object. In company with George I made 
further explorations. I endeavored to locate the old 
wharf where the Agnes discharged her cargo ; half of it 
she ''carried away" at the time, and the remainder had 
since followed, as no trace of it was to be found ; nor was 
there a single thing left to show that a ship ever lay there. 
How the clink of that iron came up in my memory ! The 
place was covered over with buildings connected with the 
railroad running to Albany. The spot where I neatly 
piled up the iron and fenced it in to preserve it against 
the ravenous appetite of the town pigs was also occupied 
by a building belonging to the railroad. The old time 
marks were entirely obliterated. I thought, when the 
wharf was built, that perhaps shipping would be attracted 
to that spot and extend along the shore near by, but I 


found that all the wharves and shipping were carried be- 
low to a new spot altogether. There was, I found, a 
marked contrast between the shipping of to-day and that 
of twenty-five years before. Now ships, barks, brigs, 
schooners, and smaller craft gave a decidedly marine 
aspect to the place, with new structures erected for busi- 
ness accommodations, which argued a healthy advance in 
commercial enterprise. Great improvements had also 
been made in the town. Buildings of every kind had 
been erected on the old streets and the new streets were 
becoming rapidly occupied, to accommodate an increasing 
population, that, from a few hundred when I was in 
Brunswick before, had grown to upwards of three thou- 
sand, to which every day was adding. Hardly enough v/ .jjgfj 
growth, however, to warrant the original hope that some 
day Brunswick would rival Savannah. But who can tell 
what fate holds in reserve? Two railroads and a fine 
harbor are excellent bases to build upon, and active enter- 
prise may overcome all minor diflSculties. My opinion 
regarding the real progress of Brunswick is, that if a new 
hotel were built, worthy of the place, it would be an indi- 
cation of revived hope and confidence and give assurance 
of stability. Some years ago Mr. Hezekiah Plummer of 
Lawrence, Mass., built a large hotel here, which was 
burned down, as well as the one where I stopped in 1853, 
and that neither of them has been replaced is not credit- 
able to the town. 

The next morning after our walk I called upon some of 
the people of the place whom I had known during my 
previous sojourn. I found Mrs. Brooks still living with 
her only remaining daughter (the eldest) in the same 


house where I had so often visited in former days, Mr. 
Brooks and her other daughters having died in the mean 
time. I next sought out Mr. Friedlander, my former 
friend at the hotel. He was out when I called at his 
store, but I was received cordially by his partner, Mr. 
Anderson, who, after recognition, recalled the circum- 
stances of my being there with Captain Scott so many 
*¥ years previous. When Mr. F. made his appearance I saw 

/ . in him the same tall shrewd-looking Dutchman that I had 

known twenty-five years before, upon whose frame and 
countenance time had wrought little change. He could 
not at first place me, but said I was a " shentleman " he 
had certainly seen somewhere, but where he could not 
say. Thus puzzled, he seemed very anxious to get at the 
explanation of my familiarity with him and my general 
knowledge of the town. After collecting himself and 
straining his memory, he recalled my identity and was 
very glad to see me. 

**Vell, Schmidty," said he, **I vas glat to zee you. 
Veil, veil, the Lord has peen kind mit you. Shtand up 
and led me hav von goot look mit you. Veil, veil, you 
pe not much more as dall as you used to vas, put you ish 
proader dis way," — drawing his hand across his breast ; 
**Dwenty-fife year ish von long dime mit a man's life. 
How vas Captain Scodd? He ish alife den? Veil, he 
vas a goot man. Oh, yaw, I regollect mit me de goot ship 
Agnesy mit de gargo of iron. You remember we poarded 
mit de hodel togedder. Veil, dat hodel vas gone — purnt 
mit the groundt off py some sogers what puilt a fire and 
forgod dem to put it out. You recollect Mr. Vood, de 
landlord? Veil, he was kilt py von of his pest vriends. 


Charley Moore vos de man vot did de teed. You remem- 
ber him? He vos a leedle schapp vos goom to de hodel 
breddy often, mit a slouch hat von site of his head. He 
vas trunk ven he shot Mr. Vood. Veil, Schmidty, ve haf 
had a pig war since you vas hereapouts, and I shust had 
to shut mine shop and skedadle to de goundry ourt. 
Our soger poys got dired mit noding to do, so dey vired 
some shot into de gunpoads mit de harbor, and de gun- 
poads shust redurned de gombliment, bretty quick, too. 
While I vos sit in mine own house apout, dar vas one rot- 
ten shot, as de negro said, game down indo mine kitchen 
and bust tings. I thought, sure, de tyfel had gome. Veil, 
dem vas hard dimes and no mistake. H'm I dwendy- 
fife year since you vas hereapouts I I vonter vhere ve vill 
pe dwendy-fife year do gome. And tid you hear about 
my preaging mine thigh in New York cidy? Yas, I veil . 
mit de izy bavements and I zued dat cidy for dirty dousant 
toUars, vich I peat dem ; put I don't get no dirty dousant 
tollars. Only got dree dousant tollars. Dat vos all I get. 
Veil, Schmidty, haf you zeen any of de old beobels? Dere 
is some you know vot is lifing. You remember old Scran- --^ 

ton, de bostmasder? Veil, he vas shtill alife." 

**And old Josh Berry," said I, breaking in upon my 
voluble old friend; "what of him?" Josh was the old 
black Berry of the Agnes days, who gave us great amuse- 

"Yas," continued Mr. F.,"Josh Berry vas alife, doo. He 
vorks ofer mit von of the islands. I saw him apout a 
vortnight ago, and he's shust de zame old gomigal bow- 
legged cuss he vas dwendy-fife year ago. But have you 
zeen Mr. Bourke? Here, Shonny, run ofer to Mr. 



Bourke's, and dell him to gome here right away quick. 
Dhere is a shentleman in my zdore vould like to zee him." 

Mr. Bourke soon entered the store and my German 
friend, pointing to me, said, — 

^ Mr. Bourke, shust you but your eye on that shentleman, 
and dell me if you efer zeen him before." 

''I think I have," replied Mr. Bourke, eyeing me closely. 

''Veil, vere?" said Mr. F. 

''I think his name is Smith," responded Mr. Bourke, 
'* and that he was here with Captain Scott some twenty- 
five years ago." 

"Veil, veil," said my German friend, "you peats me all 
ourt. I knew his vace, put I gouldn't gall him py name." 

"Mr. Smith," said Bourke, "I wish you would leave as 
good a job for me this time as you did then. I watched 
that iron as deputy collector fourteen months, at three 
dollars per day, and at the end of that time it was all light- 
ered around to Savannah by schooners. I have the mem- 
orandum of the first money you paid me for labor when 
^discharging. It was twenty-one dollars for seven days 
labor, and I saw it recently when looking over some old 

The interview with these gentlemen was very pleasant, 
and I enjoyed it hugely. 

"Schmidty," said Mr. Friedlander, "I regollect me a 
goot shoke you got off ven Mr. Mabray mate you puild dat 
vence rount mit the iron after it vas landed. You said you 
tidn't zee the need of any prodection, unless it vas to keep 
the hungry bigs of Prunsvick from eading it up, and if it 
had peen big" iron the bigs would haf eaten it long ago. 
Yaw, dat vas the best shoke of the dimes." 


During the interview with these gentlemen many old 
scenes and associations were recalled that brought back the 
past very vividly. Many had departed on the long journey 
who had made my sojourn pleasant in the former time, 
and the hour of our communion was replete with the deep- 
est interest. I regretted, exceedingly, that I could not 
make a longer stay in Brunswick, but I was compelled to 
"move on," as if a London policeman were urging his 
command, and we took our departure. 

February 21 we left for Fernandina, Fla., on the 
steamer Florence^ at 4 p.m. We passed through the 
Brunswick ship channel, along the whole length of Jekyl 
Island, and saw St. Simon's Light. There were plenty of 
oysters lying along the sides of the creeks and wild ducks 
feeding upon adjacent marshes, enough to excite the long- 
ings of sportsmen or epicures. We caught occasional 
glimpses of a peculiar breed of wild horses to add to our 
equine information, but the boat would not tarry to admit 
of closer examination. They were to be found only in 
these localities. To the purser of the boat we were in- 
debted for much entertaining description of the scenes we 
passed through. It is a most agreeable thing to meet, on a 
journey like ours through a strange country, a gentleman 
so kindly communicative, and we duly appreciated his at- 
tentions. We passed through St. Andrew's sound and 
along by Cumberland Island, seeing innumerable flocks of 
ducks and other waterfowl as we went along. We took 
supper on board the boat, and, with nothing happening of 
further interest, arrived at Fernandina, a quaint old place 
upon the coast. We took quarters at the Egmont House, 
a new and elegant structure, built the previous season 


and opened July i, 1877. In front of the hotel is a 
garden fenced with palmetto and orange trees, which, in 
luxuriant foliage, were in strange contrast with the North- 
ern trees we had but just left. It takes some time to ac- 
custom a Northerner to this change, which, however, is 
very agreeable. Here we celebrated Washington's birth- 
day with appropriate honors. 

The Florida darkey embodies the general peculiarities 
of his race, and has certain special characteristics of his 
own, which together form a whole that must be seen to be 
appreciated. In their churches, which we attended, they 
are much like their more Northerly brethren, but their devo- 
tion, though unique and in some respects ludicrous, is so 
evidently sincere that it commands respect even while it 
amuses. They are a lazy, happy set. One of the bright- 
est of our party remarked that this indolence was the re- 
sult of reaction; they had worked so hard while slaves 
that they could do nothing but rest now. One of them 
gave an amusing account of his treatment of yellow fever 
in reply to an inquiry of one of our ladies regarding that 
disease : 

"Well," said he, ''missus, when I feel de misery come 
— der pains, yer know, in de head and in de back — den 
I knowed somefin' mus' be done. Dere's nuffin' like 
lemons for yaller feber, but I couldn't get no lemons. So 
I takes der lemon leabs and steeps dem, and den I rubs 
myself all ober wid der wash. Den I takes snake root 
and makes er tea, and den I drinks dat and dat makes de 
appetite. / didn't have no doctor. Ps my own doctor. 
Doctors donno how to treat yaller feber. Dey give de 
patient ice. But, missus, ef you eber hab de yaller feber, 


don't you neber take ice 'cause ef yer do you freeze yer 
libber and yer die shu." 

We visited the school for colored boys and girls during 
its session, and were much gratified with the appearance 
of the scholars' proficiency. It is under the charge of Mr. 
and Mrs. D. K. Ballard, and bears evidence of painstak- 
ing care on the part of the teachers. We heard the classes 
in their several exercises, and a brighter school it would 
be hard to find anywhere. Their reading and spelling 
were especially good, and we were allowed to hear them 
sing, which they did with real credit to themselves. I 
brought away with me the autograph of Master Joseph R. 
Howard, a boy of ten years, that astonished me by its 
excellence. It was rapidly written, but the letters were 
connected and evenly formed, and many an expert in 
penmanship would fail to produce anything much better. 
I could scarcely have credited the possibility of the thing 
had it not been done right before my eyes. 

We enjoyed a pleasant ride along the beach, for two 
or three miles and gathered shells for mementos. The 
beach is some twenty miles long and the bland air and 
the sea render a ride over it very delightful. Returning, 
we made a circuit of the old town, which we found ex- 
ceedingly picturesque. Ending a very pleasant day with 
a supper at 6.30, we left by rail at 8 p.m. for Jackson- 

We arrived at Jacksonville at 1.30 a.m., the last part of 
the road being very "hubbly." A country editor thus 
speaks of this road : " It has three receivers : one to receive 
for the bondholders, Mr. Day (the superintendent) who 
receives all the money, and the ditch which receives the 


trains." Hard, but may have a share of truth in it. We 
enlivened the way among ourselves by a quartette of pleas- 
antries, with no growls of discontent, thankful that we 
had escaped the last-named receiver. 

On arriving at Jacksonville we had our baggage checked 
for the St. James Hotel, and inquired for the " close car- 
riage " which, by prearrangement, we had ordered for our 
personal conveyance. At the station the vehicle was 
awaiting us, and we were at once piloted to it. It was a 
'* close carriage," indeed ! All had to sit closCy the air was 
closcy and the remarks made were close upon the style of 
objurgation which the irreverent sometimes make ; but for- 
tunately the hotel was close at hand, and upon reaching it, 
the ladies vowed, as ladies do, that never would they put 
foot in a "close carriage" again. But the sequel showed 
how liable people are to forget. When we stopped at 
Palatka, subsequently, it was raining, and the hotel porter 
who was on hand at the steamer took some of our traps, 
and said, "The ladies can ride, it will cost them nothing." 
So on they went, not dreaming of what awaited them. 
On arriving at the carriage, forgetting for the moment 
their former determination, in they got, only to find them- 
selves in a close carriage of the former pattern ! I saw 
what was impending and could hardly keep my counte- 
nance until they were fairly in. It was too good an op- 
portunity to lose and I shouted, " Close carriage for 
ladies to the St. James ! " 

The rain continued all night after our arrival at Jack- 
sonville, and in the morning we banished hope of being 
able to do anything during the day ; but along in the fore- 
noon the weather cleared up, and we went out for a walk. 


A beautiful garden extended along the front of the hotel, 
as at Fernandina, which gave a very pleasant aspect to 
the scene. It contained many fine orange trees laden 
with the most delicious looking fruit. We went down 
upon the business streets and visited several curiosity 
shops, where principal among the temptations to buy were 
alligators' teeth made into a large number of forms, shoe- 
buckles, whistles, scarf pins, etc., some of which we pur- 
chased. " Greenleaf s Jewelry Store " is a famous place 
of resort for visitors. Here we found quite a zoological 
garden in the rear, bears, alligators, wildcats, and other 
•* varmint," comprising the collection. Some specimens 
of alligator teeth were shown us that were very beautiful, 
and from the obliging proprietor we learned much about 
Florida grasses and other ornamental products of the 
country concerning which Northern ladies are greatly 

Next day being Sunday, we attended church and heard 
a sermon by Rev. Solon Cobb from the North, whom we 
had met at the hotel. In the evening we went to a colored 
church and heard a black preacher discourse on the sub- 
ject of the wise and foolish virgins. He was very quaint 
in his illustrations and made no such mistake as the white 
preacher who, in speaking upon the same subject, said that 
there were ten virgins, five of whom were males and five 
females. After the sermon, a notice was read stating that 
money was wanted for church purposes, and the colored 
preacher descanted upon it. The dialect must be im- 

"Now brethren,'' said he, "we want money — money to 
finish our church — and I ask you to give us fifty dollars. 


You are all able to do, and it won't hurt you a bit. You 
have got plenty of money, so give us fifty dollars, and 
we'll fix up the gallery and put in seats and not have any 
one stand up any more. If you can't give us just ' zaxly ' 
fifty dollars, why, give us twenty-five." 

The collection was taken up, and the result showed but 
eight dollars, and the preacher, peeping over the pulpit 
where the deacons were counting the money, said, — 

"Now brethren, I am disappointed. I had a 'putty' 
spiritual song that I was going to sing if you had given 
fifty dollars, but I can't sing for only eight dollars." 

The amount collected was handed to him, and he con- 
tinued, — 

"I'm glad you have given that, but it isn't quite enough 
for you to get the ' putty ' spiritual song. I hope the Lord 
will bless you for what you have given, but if you want to 
go to the New Jerusa/«/w, you ought to make it up to fifty 

After this, a few commenced to sing, accompanied by a 
sort of dance the solemnity of which could only be seen 
by the performers themselves. This church was called 
the St. James Theatre. 

Next day, at 1.30 p.m., we took the the steamer Sappho 
for Tocei, where we embarked on the train for St. Augus- 
tine, arriving February 25 . This city is one of special in- 
terest to the historian, it being the first permanent settle- 
ment that was established on this continent, the founda- 
tions of which were laid by the Spaniards in 1565. The 
French Huguenots had tried to possess it, but Melendez, 
under direction of the Emperor of Spain, drove them from 
the soil with terrible cruelty, and it became the scene of 


violence and bloodshed which continued for many years. 
Early on the morning after our arrival we went out to see 
the old town and first visited the meat and fish market. 
At the latter were mullet, drum, sea bass, and other varie- 
ties, not abundant, but looking fresh and nice. I found 
the fishermen very communicative regarding the manner 
of taking fish in Southern waters, in some respects differ- 
ent from our modes at the North. There is a sea-wall, 
and the main town is separated from the beach by a road, 
so that the beach is inaccessible by land. The streets are 
very narrow, and the sharp curves remind one of Marble- 
head or some of our oldest towns whose streets, it is said, 
follow the tracks the cows made when going for water. 
Curiosity shops abounded, where the customary Southern 
varieties of traflSc could be had — alligators' teeth (wrought 
into many forms), stuffed alligators and birds, elegant 
shells, orange-tree canes, etc. These find a ready pur- 
chase by Northerners. The buildings are low and of a 
peculiar architecture, made of a material formed of sea- 
shells, and called ** coquina." It is found on the shore and 
proves a very excellent building material, but, unlike natu- 
ral stone, it crumbles with time though otherwise tolerably 
durable. A great many houses of St. Augustine are built 
of it. Mr. Ball, of the firm of Ball, Black & Company, 
New York, has a fine residence here. We called at the 
house, which sits in the midst of fine grounds shaded by 
luxuriant trees and is approached by a broad avenue from 
the main street beneath an arch of orange trees. These 
trees had grown into a thick hedge at least 20 to 25 feet 
in height and were loaded down with fruit. This arched 
avenue leads to a circular inner enclosure. On the oppo- 


site side of the circle is another arched passageway, and 
paths diverge from the centre through the orange grove 

We continued our walk to the adjacent mansion of a Mr. 
Anderson, where we were much interested in seeing the 
process of preparing oranges for the market. Men and 
boys were busily engaged in handling the fruit, which, as 
soon as gathered, is put into a room on a sort of rack pre- 
pared for the purpose, where, after it has lain for two or 
three days, it is sorted over, papered, and graded. We 
went through the grove and picked from the trees the most 
delicious oranges we had ever eaten. Oranges eaten upon 
the spot seem to have a better flavor. This was a particu- 
larly pleasant episode, and formed a red-letter item in our 
pilgrimage. We could hardly realize that but three or four 
days' travel separated us, amid scenes of tropical luxu- 
riance, from the ice and snow of wintry New England. 
Truly this is a fast age ! 

The beach we did not visit, nor the lighthouse, as the 
weather was somewhat disagreeable. It rained during the 
forenoon, which limited somewhat our explorations, but we 
made a good record. Returning, via the Square, we saw 
the monument, the old cathedral, and St. Augustine Hotel ; 
and going round among the curiosity shops along by the 
sea, we made purchases to take home, among which were 
two alligators^ that were placed in boxes and christened 
''Helen's Babies" by the jocular vender. We accepted 
the name, and they came along with us under that title. 

In the afternoon we set out again, bent upon sight-see- 
ing. We passed through St. George street, so narrow 
that a Northern load of hay would find it a ^ tight fit " in 


navigating it. We went to the old city gates, the old co- 
quina pillars and sentry-box still standing in good state of 
preservation. In old times the city was undoubtedly 
walled all around for protection against enemies, for then 
strong walls were a necessity. We visited the old Fort 
Marion, a grand and well-planned fortress, encircled by a 
moat, and we went through its various winding and intri- 
cate recesses. There were about lOO Indians of two or 
three different tribes from out West confined here at the 
time of our visit. They were very docile, then, but when 
first sent there they were very wild. Two or three of them 
caught a cow and, taking her into a fort, butchered her and 
ate her flesh raw and drank her blood. They employ 
themselves by making bows and arrows, and for amuse- 
ment draw quaint pictures of buffalo and antelope hunts, 
pitch bean bags, and play other games. They have a 
room 200 by 40 feet, and each one is allowed a space 
where his bunk stands. In the daytime the bedclothes and 
mattresses are rolled up and fastened to the head of the 
bunk, leaving the room thus gained for a seat. These 
bunks are arranged on both sides of the room, and a large 
stove for cold weather occupies the middle space. In this 
fort no dungeons were supposed to exist, save one that was 
accessible to all, but in 1846 a little settling was noticed 
where heavy cannon had been moved, and investigation 
disclosed a large dungeon and a human skeleton hidden 
away within it. It being perceived that the stones com- 
posing the sides of the wall were different from the rest, 
these stones were removed and another dungeon discov- 
ered with passages leading to the end walls, in which 
were found two iron cages containing human bones, sup- 


posed to be the remains of some distinguished Spaniard 
who was left to die here for political offences. The Span- 
iards were a cruel people when the old fort was built. In 
the fort are casemates all around, one of which, we noticed, 
had been used as a chapel, as the little marks on the wall 
where the candles were placed still remain. We were 
shown the casemate where Osceola, the chief of the Semi- 
noles, was confined, but from which he made his escape. 
The old ordnance sergeant in charge of the fort told the 
story with great gusto. 

Our stay at St. Augustine was necessarily brief, but the 
time was well improved. We left February 2*]yper rail to 
Tocei, over a road that has no equal on this continent for 
eccentricity of make and management. It was originally 
a horse railroad, and now that it had reached the dignity 
of steam, its cars were of two or three different patterns, 
for passage in which a charge of 14 cents per mile was 
levied. The road was owned by William B. Astor, and he 
must have been relying upon its receipts as his principal 
source of income. We reached Tocei without accident 
or adventure, and embarked upon the Sappho for a trip 
up the St. John's river to Palatka. The St. John's is a pleas- 
ant, but dull and monotonous stream, seeming to be op- 
pressed with the inertia that characterizes Southern life, and 
not choosing to hurry any. There are broad stretches 
here and there that widen into the importance of small 
lakes, and along its low shores are vast expanses of wild 
growths that seem to spring directly from the water. 
There are sunny little coves that occasionally appear, and 
settlements and solitary houses that show human habita- 
tion, and these relieve the sameness ; but the river is alto- 


gether unlike the blue streams of the North and seems 
fitted to be the home of the alligator and malaria. 

We arrived at Palatka on the 28th, at 7.30 p.m., under 
dampening circumstances described elsewhere, but a " close 
carriage " took our party to the Putnam House, a new hotel 
built a few years previously. Palatka is the principal town 
upon the river, and growing rapidly. The rain prevented 
our going out, and in the morning we left by the little 
steamer Pastime for a trip up the river. We ran past nu- 
merous fishermen with their nets set for shad and their 


little boat landings where they took care of their fish scat- 
tered along at intervals of a mile or so. At one landing, 
orange packing for market was going on, the colored 
brother owning many trees along the river. There were 
some grand islands that we passed ; of these was Drayton 
Island (Calhoun's orange plantation), with a hotel upon it, 
and Hibernia, a real gem of the see. There were a few 
houses on this, one of which was especially pleasant, with 
a beautiful green lawn that descended to the water's edge. 
Mrs. Stowe's plantation (Mandarin) was pointed out, but 
" Uncle Tom's Cabin " did not appear in the scene. 

We were on the lookout for alligators, and the scarcity 
of these amphibia vexed us. One boy on board the Pas- 
time said he saw one about six feet long, and that boy at 
once achieved a character. Not an alligator did we see 
between Palatka and Sanford, and that boy who alleged 
that he saw one people began to regard as a fabulous 
allegator himself. 

We arrived at Sanford at 7.30 and went directly to the 
Sanford House, which we found to be well kept by Mr. 
Winslow, the manager, to whom we had letters of intro- 


duction. Sanford was not much of a place in itself. It 
had two piers, a few buildings and stores, and that was 
about all, with the hotel. It is situated on one of the lakes 
formed by the widening of the river, and if there is not 
much enterprise in the town, the town of Enterprise on 
the other bank stands ready to urge it on by wholesome 
emulation. They are both said to be good places for in- 
valids, and many sportsmen come there. We merely 
spent the night at Sanford, and returned next day on the 
Pastime to Palatka. 

The day was most beautiful, and again alligators were 
our quest. We closely watched the banks in hope of see- 
ing some of them basking in the sun. We crossed Lake 
Monroe, another widening of the river, that we were told 
abounded with fish and plenty of game, but not an alliga- 
tor had we seen. We were told that bears and deer fre- 
quented the woods upon the shore, and the day before we 
had dined upon wild turkey on the boat, but what was all 
this to us when our minds craved sight of the festive alli- 

A great shout was heard : " Oh, there's an alligator ! " 
and every one, in an instant, was on foot to take the alli- 
gator in hand, or at least to get a glimpse of it, when, to 
everybody's disgust, it proved to be a log — " blind alliga- 
tors," they are called. It was a satisfaction to cast it in 
the teeth of the St. John's that more alligators were to be 
seen in the Boston Museum than on the biggest river in 
Florida. About 11.30 all were on the bow of the steamer 
eager to get the first sight of an alligator. Several pre- 
tended to have seen one, but no one else took stock in the as- 
sertion, when presently there arose another cry : *' There's 


one I " '' Where, where ? " was the response. '' Why, 
don't you see him on that log ? " All eyes were turned 
towards the spot indicated, and there, sure enough, stretched 
upon a log, was his alligatorship, as if asleep in the pleas- 
ant sunshine. In a moment the crack of a rifle was heard, 
and the monster rolled off the log, but not without feeling 
the effect of the shot which struck him on the tail, wound- 
ing that caudal adornment, but not affecting him vitally. I 
was in the pilot house at noon, and the pilot told me to look 
sharp along the shores at a certain point, and I should 
probably see one. I thus acted, and, as he had said, there 
almost instantly appeared a large one on the bank, seem- 
ing to be looking at us very complacently, as if he were 
trying to comprehend what we were. We had a good 
long look at him, when a rifle ball was despatched at him, 
but he was too quick for it and plunged into the water 
with a great splash a second before the ball reached him. 
Our way down from Orange Bluff was a panorama of 
cypress trees hung with moss and mistletoe, palmetto trees, 
stump snags, alligators (of which we saw quite a num- 
ber), and all the concomitants of Southern scetiery, never 
tedious, though monotonous, enlivened by pleasant asso- 
ciation and agreeable conversation on the Pastime^ re- 
garding which one feminine of our party had said that 
one "pastime "was in "looking for alligators." Shot fol- 
lowed shot as the hideous monsters appeared, but with what 
result was not known, as they did not stay to report dam- 

I made a number of striking drawings of scenes between 
Sanford and Palatka, which, though not illustrative of the 
highest development in art, give a graphic view of locali- 


ties that will be great aids to memory in after time. They 
are preserved in my notebooks. And a-profos of pictures, 
at the Putnam House in Palatka a lady sent one of the 
waiters for the stereoscope and photographs, and he asked 
for the ** telescope and photograms." 

We arrived at Palatka at 6.30 p.m. and by a unanimous 
vote decided that we had had a very pleasant time and 
voted the weather delicious. We took quarters for the 
night at the Putnam House, an excellent hotel, kept by 
Vermont people. After breakfast next morning, I took 
a row on the river to try my hand at trolling for fish in 
Southern waters, but the wind was so high and raised so 
rough a swell that I had no luck. While I was on this 
piscatory mission the rest of our party visited Hart's orange 
grove, and were there at the landing to meet me on my 

At 3.30 P.M. we embarked on the steamer Hampton 
for Green Cove Springs, nothing of importance transpiring 
during the voyage. We arrived at 6 o'clock, designing 
to stay over Sunday which was next day. We realized 
that greatest pleasure in life to absentees, the receipt of 
letters from home, worth going away from home to enjoy. 
How precious a familiar hand seems at such time I 

It rained hard during the night, but the succeeding day 
promised well, and I was up bright and early to enjoy it. 
Green Cove is a popular resort for invalids, of whom quite 
a number were at the hotel. I went down to take a look 
at the spring and taste the water, which is discharged at the 
rate of 3000 gallons per minute. The weather continued 
fine (the thermometer registering 75 degrees), and after 
dinner we all took a stroll down to the river and along its 


banks. There is a beautiful path leading to Magnolia, 
distant one and a half miles, and the surrounding scenery 
is very fine. The trees are draped with moss and exceed- 
ingly picturesque. In the evening we enjoyed some good 
singing in the parlor. 

Monday morning, March 4, we bade good-bye to Green 
Cove, and took the steamer Saffho for Jacksonville. It 
was quite cool, the mercury having fallen 12 degrees 
in about as many hours. We arrived at 2.30 p.m., and 
immediately went to the St. James hotel, where excellent 
rooms awaited us. After dinner we went out in search of 
curiosities. Bay street being the main locality for such 
trade, and Pelton's store the most frequented. This store 
is an antique of the rarest character, and the proprietor 
himself seems like some fossil that has returned to life. 
We found preparations for a church fair in progress, which 
showed that Northern customs were obtaining a foothold at 
the South ; showing, also, that fairs and fashions may be- 
come important factors in promoting unity between North- 
ern and Southern ladies. 

Next morning we took a row boat and went up the 
river about three miles to the splendid residence of Mrs. 
Mitchell, whose spacious garden and orange grove have a 
wide reputation. On landing at the grounds, visitors are 
required to record their names. Upon entering the gar- 
den, directly in front of the entrance, and some hundred 
feet beyond, was the house, or cottage, with a piazza 
all around it and balconies, pretty well up from the 
ground, with lattice work underneath. The garden is 
laid out in walks, with a fountain in the centre. The 
orange grove is upon the left and right of the garden and 


in the rear. In the rear, also, is a long covered walk 
designed for grapes. On the bank of the river and just 
inside the enclosure are large trees hung with moss. This 
moss is the favorite decorative design of nature at the 
South, and here it was displayed to fine advantage. One 
large tree had seats in it and costly arrangements for a 
party to occupy the elevated premises. Pedestals, or 
altars, we observed, were distributed around the grounds, 
with receivers for pitchpine to be fired on occasions in 
the evening, and shed light on the scene. This plan of 
torch-light is quite common up and down the river, and 
one such illumination we had the pleasure of witnessing. 

I spent a whole day in exploring Arlington creek, start- 
ing at 9 o'clock with a darkey boy to row me. Arlington 
creek is down the river about four miles on the opposite 
side from Jacksonville. On entering the creek I began to 
troll, but with little success at first. The water looked all 
right, and we started out from the coves some fine large 
trout, but from some cause or other they would not strike. 
Pursuing our course up, skilfully playing my line and 
wondering whether I should encounter a hungry trout or 
a black bass, I was suddenly awakened from my dreamy 
doubt by the consciousness that something of an animated 
nature was tugging away at the other end of my line. 
Whatever it was I handled it carefully, and in a few 
moments a fine black bass, of some three pounds* weight, 
was floundering in the bottom of the boat. So much to 
begin with. The sun was pretty hot and the water glassy 
— very inopportune for successful fishing — and I came to 
the conclusion that our "catch" would be small under the 
circumstances. I have never seen, however, a better spot 


for fishing, and had I been on the ground and trolled from 
the bank, instead of on the water — it being then the mid- 
dle of the day — I am quite certain that I should have had 
rare sport. The creek is bordered by wild land on each 
side, and the water grass and lily pads are just the place 
for fish. After moving up the creek a number of miles, 
we turned back, Robert, my colored oarsman, calling at a 
negro hut for something to eat. Here was a rare sight to 
see ; a mother and six children sitting in the dirt together. 
When nearly opposite the point where I caught the bass, 
I hooked another and secured it. It was a much finer 
fish than the first. We returned to Jacksonville at 4 p.m., 
against a strong wind and tide, and found our party at the 
landing awaiting my return. 

It was drawing near the time when we were to bid fare- 
well to Jacksonville. After tea we settled our bills and in 
the evening went down to the steamboat David Clark^ 
and slept on board. She was to start for Savannah at 3 
o'clock in the morning, and sailed on time, but when on 
her way about 30 miles she suddenly stopped, and no 
coaxing of the captain or engineer could make her budge 
one inch. We were just at the mouth of The Sisters, a 
creek 15 miles long, and so narrow that two boats could 
not pass at some points. The tide was rising, which was 
in our favor. All were on deck at once to see what was 
going on and inquire regarding the mud's adhesive quali- 
ties. By and by she started as if to free her keel from the 
sticky encumbrance, the boat being so arranged that she 
could back one wheel and push ahead with the other. 
She had not gone far before she came to a stand again ; 
but not for long, however, and she came off headed for 


Fernandina, at which place we expected to arrive by 
12 M. It is exceedingly interesting, as well as novel, to 
make one trip, at least, through these marshes ; not that 
there is so much to see, but it is interesting to see what a 
steamer can do when handled in a skilful manner while 
passing among them. We were fortunate in seeing a pel- 
ican, and several shots were fired at him, but, although 
they fell around him like hail, not one seemed to touch him. 
One gentleman remarked that the bird seemed to think 
some one was feeding him with corn, he minded the shot 
so little. I couldn't see how he was le(a)d to this conclu- 
sion. It caused a good deal of merriment to see him sail 
along so unconcernedly, as if in defiance of the sharp- 
shooters. Many porpoises were seen in the lakes likewise, 
with game everywhere on water and on shore; ducks, 
crane, blue heron, gulls, blackbirds, crows, in infinite 

We arrived at Fernandina at i p.m., the weather very 
hot. We were now out of Florida, and I was not very 
sorry. Florida may possess a good climate for those 
troubled with lung difficulties, but for those afflicted with 
rheumatism, I do not think, from careful observation, that 
it presents any advantages. The nights are damp, and 
there must, naturally, be a good deal of miasma from the 
low, swampy condition of the land. Jacksonville is Jlai 
and catches all the northern Jlats^ and as the weather is 
quite debilitating, it makes one teeljiat^ which is not very 
flattering to the place or its visitors. I have mentioned 
very little about the Florida negroes, but they maintain the 
characteristics of their race. They are the same happy- 
go-lucky set, rejoicing in their freedom, though in St. 


Augustine I found an old negro woman who regretted that 
she couldn't go into slavery again. Many of the negroes 
are small farmers, and their farming management is pecu- 
liar. For instance, I am told that in ploughing, when a 
negro gets to the end of the last furrow, he leaves his 
plough in it until the next season, hangs his harness on the 
nearest fence, and permits his mule to lunch upon his straw 
collar, so he has to make a new one when the time comes 
for using it again. How the poorer ones live it is hard to 
tell. I asked a negro at Jacksonville what he lived on. 
"Yanks (Yankees) in winter and catfish in summer," was 
his quick reply, and it may serve as well for other sections. 
But there is a new ambition awakened among the better 
classes of the negroes, who are intelligent and industrious, 
making good citizens in their new freedom, and having 
their own bank accounts. 

We left Fernandina for Savannah by the ''Inland 
Route," which I have previously described, to touch at 
Brunswick, where we arrived at 7 p.m. Thence we went 
to Savannah, where we docked at 12 o'clock, and immedi- 
ately proceeded to the Pulaski House, my old hotel of 
twenty-five years before. The same rule of good rooms 
and a good table was still observed, but the house bore 
evidence of passing time. My first object in Savannah 
was to look up some of my old friends, but few of them 
were left to greet me. Claghorn & Cunningham were 
still in business, and I had an interesting interview with 
Mr. Claghorn, who was exceedingly glad to see me after 
so many years. He was a major general in the War of 
the Rebellion, but no allusion was made regarding national 
affairs. I met, also, Mr. H. B. Luce, the former keeper 


of "our house." These were all Jthat were left of my 
former friends. " Bonaventura," the beautiful cemetery 
which we visited, holds the remains of most of them in 
trust. This celebrated cemetery, with its gothic-shaped 
arches formed by the moss hanging down from the live- 
oak trees that line the driveways, was owned formerly 
by the Wiltbergers, and was private property when I first 
visited Savannah. Colonel Wiltberger, formerly proprie- 
tor of the Pulaski House, has a splendid monument there. 
The city gave evidence of great prosperity, having recov- 
ered very rapidly from the effects of the war. Marked 
changes had taken place since my former visit. It had 
extended up the river and at all other points. The con- 
tinuation of Bull street was a great improvement, with the 
beautiful park at the end, in which there is a fine fountain 
that gives grace to the vicinity. Just beyond there is a 
new park, occupying several squares, with a Confederate 
monument in the centre. There are some charming resi- 
dences in Savannah, and in all respects it is one of the 
finest cities in the South. 

As we were to remain in the city over Sunday, we were 
told not to miss attending the Savannah market, a great 
point of attraction on Saturday night. It is called " Negro's 
Night," because on this evening all the colored population 
of Savannah congregate there. We accordingly visited 
the market, and a novel scene presented itself. There 
were thousands, representing every shade of color and 
condition, who were purchasing or interviewing or idling, 
and a more indescribable Babel of tongues could not exist 
anywhere than was there exhibited. All were equally 
clamorous, from the vencrables of either sex to the young- 


est who appeared to feel that this night was indeed theirs, 
as it had been from long custom, and they needed no 
Fourteenth Amendment to strengthen their claim. A 
better-natured crowd it would be impossible to imagine, 
with whom traffic and social intercourse were equally 
blended, and their clear voices and happy laughter rang 
on the evening air like unwritten music, with a careless 
and happy abandon, the light flashing from the torches 
illuminating the congregated faces and giving a weird 
appearance to the scene. To those unaccustomed, the 
whole was very interesting and amusing, and to stand 
quietly by and listen to conversations carried on in the 
quaint negro dialect, or to note the processes of trade with 
the customary altercations regarding prices, afforded a 
very funny opportunity for studying the negro character. 
One feature was striking, the negro politeness that dis- 
tinguishes these people in their intercourse with each other. 
This rarely fails, and the "sar" and "ma'am *' are seldom 
omitted in conversation. In trade, however, "sharp is the 
word," and many funny exchanges of tongue were observed 
that denoted shrewdness and cunning. The market is a 
flne large building and well arranged, but the outside, on 
"Negro Night," is most attractive. *The stalls are bounti- 
fully supplied, and everything can be had from a yoke of 
steers to a spring chicken. Beef cost i6 cents per pound, 
shad IS to 50 cents apiece, the shad being the largest I ever 
saw. There were trout, mullet, bass, sheepsheads, etc., in 
great quantities, but the hungry crowd made them beauti- 
fully less. Our marketing done, we returned to the hotel, 
where we spent Sunday, making new acquaintances and 
confirming our good opinion of Savannah. 


We left on Monday morning for Augusta, Ga., on our 
way North, by rail, inspired by the hope of soon reaching 
home. ''By rail," at the South, however, does not always 
imply speed or comfort, and we did not seem to advance 
with a movement accordant with our anticipations. Hav- 
ing gone over so much of the Southern territory, and each 
succeeding scene seeming but a repetition of that which 
we had just left, the journey grew wearisome. The same 
" shiftless " condition of things, so disgusting to Miss 
Ophelia in "Uncle Tom's Cabin," prevailed everywhere, 
with negroes and hogs preponderating, of which the latter 
seemed the most energetic, provoking the remark from 
one of our party that hogs appeared to lead in respect to 
industry, for they did, at least, root for a living. One 
thing, however, was active and annoying. The air was 
active with a perfume not that of "Arabia the Blest," 
and at every wayside station it was evident, but more 
especially at a junction where we took our dinner. It 
grew intolerable, and every one wondered what could 
cause it. We remembered the former Libby smell, and 
queried whether the state of Georgia were going into 
guano manufacture in order to produce a higher cultiva- 
tion. The nuisance continued until we reached Augusta, 
when we discovered that we were on a mixed train, with 
freight cars attached, two of which were loaded with 

We immediately left Augusta for Aiken, S.C, under bet- 
ter auspices, but with little change in the aspect of things. 
Aiken is regarded as being probably the best place at the 
South for invalids troubled with bronchial difficulties. . 
Many accord it this pre-eminence, its elevated position and 


pure air conducing to health. There certainly was a 
better air attending our approach than that which followed 
us to Augusta, and there was, besides, an air of cleanli- 
ness and thrift about the place that warranted our good 
opinion. The ''standing committee" was large that wel- 
comed our arrival at Aiken. It was an awfully hot day, 
and as we were alighting from the train the cry, " Hab a 
close carriage f Missus?" almost drove the ladies frantic, 
awakening the memory of Jacksonville. We were beset 
by negro hackmen, who seemed to come in battalions, 
surrounding us persistently with a zeal worthy of New 
York. "Hab a bonding house. Missus?" yelled one, 
when a darkey, rushing past, cried in a stentorian voice, 
*'Dem don't want no bonding house. Dem's gwine ter 
Highland Park House, dem is. Dem don't want no 
bonding house, dem don't." So we went to the Highland 
Park House. 

Our stay at Aiken was very limited, though the place 
seemed to possess many interesting features, and, in the 
language of the negro song, — 

" We're off to Charleston, so airly in de mornin', 
We're off to Charleston, afore de broke o' day." 




PRIL 2, 1883. Having made arrangements for 
a trip South, I embarked, with Capt. W. F. 
Goldthwaite, upon the steamer Old Dominion^ 
of the Old Dominion line between New York 
and Norfolk, Va. At 3.30 p.m. we started upon our voy- 
age, 'steaming down New York harbor among its crowds 
of sh'ipping and amid infinite variety of scene on shore 
and wave. The large Cunard steamer Scythia passed us 
as we neared the Battery. Staten Island and the Narrows 
wore their usual pleasant aspect, and at the Qjiarantine 
ground there were several steamers waiting permission to 
enter. In the offing, steamers and sailing vessels of all 
varieties of rig presented a lively spectacle. One of the 
former (the Werra of the German Lloyd line), ploughed 
her way majestically through the water, a leviathan among 
the smaller craft. There were fishing vessels bound in 
with supplies of fish for the New York market, and tugs 
towing ships and barks out to sea. Coney Island and 
Rockaway were on our left, and Sandy Hook light ap- 
peared away to the right in the distance. We passed the 
lightship soon after, and then skirted along the Jersey 
shore, now well on our Southern track, reminded of simi- 
lar experiences on board the Bermuda in 1880. The 
harbor scenes which present themselves to one sailing out 
of New York are ever changing, but the grand ground- 
work remains unchanged, the same yesterday, to-day, 
and forever. 


After supper we strolled upon deck, but though the 
evening was fair, the air was too cool for the enjoyment 
of a seat. I found diversion in becoming acquainted with 
my fellow passengers, and later enjoyed quite a chat upon 
North Carolina farming and the raising beef and mutton 
for market, in which a man from North Carolina named 
Smith had the floor most of the time. We turned out early 
next morning and after a very good breakfast, passed the 
forenoon in social intercourse with the passengers, which 
was enlivened by anecdotes and tales of personal adven- 
ture. A Mrs. B. H. Cutter indulged in a lecture on the 
evils of smoking to quite a number who were enjoying 
their pipes and cigars. She singled out for special effort 
a young Virginian who used the " weed " pretty freely, and 
that young man will not soon forget the old lady's lecture. 
One thing noticeable was the good humor with which she 
treated the subject, though she was met with all sorts of 
arguments and excuses. Success, I say, to the old lady I 

About noon we passed the lightship on Five Fathom 
Bank, and an officer standing on the paddle box threw 
a package of newspapers to the lightkeepers on board — 
a real blessing to those so isolated. Soon after we passed 
Hog Island Light, with seventy-five vessels in sight nearly 
all coming out of Chesapeake Bay. After dinner we were 
opposite Smith's Island, fifty-five miles from Norfolk, 
and at 3.30 we were off Cape Henry with clouds of 
sail in sight. At 5 p.m. we passed the Rip-Raps, with 
Old Point Comfort, Fortress Monroe, and the big Hygeia 
Hotel in full view to the right of us, Newport News a few 
miles up the bay, and the little island of Hampton — all 
historical places, their names suggesting some of the most 


active scenes of the late war. On these waters the little 
" cheese-box on a raft " (the Monitor) furnished breakfast 
for the huge iron-clad Merrimac that required the whole 
Confederacy to digest. The cheese in that box was mitey 
beyond all precedent. We arrived at Portsmouth, Va., at 
6.30 P.M., and crossed the ferry bridge in the rickety 
creakity old 'bus that runs to the hotels in Norfolk. The 
•* Southern element " here began to show itself among the 
darkies, with strange phizzes and tattered garments, filling 
the air with their merry laughter. We found quarters at 
the Hotel Virginia. 

It had been a cold winter, followed by a backward 
spring, but at Norfolk the climate was mild compared with 
that of New York. The evening of my arrival I took a 
walk about town with my friend Goldthwaite and stopped 
at a barber's shop to get shaved. The colored barber gave 
my boots which were cloth-covered an awful stare, and, 
before adjusting his towel or making any other preparation, 
said, in a most astonished manner, as I placed my boots 
upon the foot-rack, — 

" Well, Boss, yer don't kotch cold in dem shoes. Whar 
on earth did yer come from, that you hab to wear such 
shoes as dose ? " 

I told him I had just come out of a snow bank, and it 
seemed almost as if the barber shivered while he shook 
with laughter. While I was occupying the chair a gentle- 
man entered, a little above medium stature, and sat down 
near the door. He immediately entered into conversation 
with the '*Bos8 Barber," and I learned from the confab 
which ensued that he was a newspaper reporter. During 
a pause the barber broke out : 

"Why, golly," said he, "I's neber so pleased in my life 
as I was when I heer'd about dat scrape you got into las' 
night. Dat was de best ting out. I'b laughed about it 
all day long. Why, golly, what did you let 'em fool ye 

My curiosity was much excited by what I heard, and I 
listened closely to get an explanation of the remark made 
by my tonsorial friend. The man wore an astonished look 
under his broad-brimmed slouch hat, and it seemed that 
he was debating in his mind whether to get angry or laugh 
at the remark. I learned that a "job " had been put upon 
the " gentleman of the press " by some mischievous chaps 
who had gone to his house and roused him up at 2 o'clock 
in the morning by a bogus story of a bank robbery. One 
of the banks, they said, had been robbed and the robbers 
had been caught and lodged in jail. He got up and, with 
his informants, rushed to the jail where two men who 
had been arrested for some common offences were pointed 
out to him as the bank robbers. He immediately tele- 
graphed to the " New York Herald " a full account of the 
robbery with an elaborate description of the robbers, even 
to the diamond studs they wore in their shirt fronts and 
other minutiae that suggested themselves to a newspaper 
man's fertile fancy. The reporter was irritated that he had 
been hoaxed, and the barber's bantering "touched the raw," 
but he restrained himself. 

"I s'pose," said the shaver, "dat youll telegraph to de 
* Herald,' and contradic' dat 'ere story." 

" Not by a sight," said he. " No, sir ; catch me say- 
ing anything about it. It is enough for me to say what I 
did ; let somebody else contradict it. Go to change every- 


thing that don't turn out just so, and you would have your 
hands full. No, sir — no contradiction in mine." 

We remained in Norfolk only over night, and early next 
morning, April ^, prepared to take the first boat for Old 
Point Comfort. Bidding adieu to "mine host," we took 
the 'bus and after some severe tossing and tumbling, as if 
there were a heavy sea running, we reached the wharf 
where the steamer lay. Our baggage on board, the whistle 
blew, and soon we left the old city of Norfolk behind us 
with all its outs and inns^ particularly glad that we were 
out of the Virginia inn. We retraced our course down the 
Elizabeth river, crossing the mouth of the James, and here 
we had a magnificent view of the surrounding country. 
We took breakfast on board, and had what a Yankee 
would call a " good feed." The whistle sounded again, an- 
nouncing our arrival somewhere, and we came slowly up 
to the wharf at Newport News, where some of the passen- 
gers landed who came on with us from New York. This 
place had undergone a great change since the war. A 
company of capitalists were constructing large wharves and 
storehouses suitable for the terminus of the Chesapeake 
& Ohio Railroad. It was proposed to take the great grain 
product of several of the Western states to Europe by this 

We made but a short stop at Newport News and then 
sped on our way for Old Point Comfort which we reached 
in about thirty-five minutes. Fortress Monroe has had its 
attractions in the past and in war times was a point of 
deep interest towards which the eyes of the nation were 
turned, but at the present time it yields the palm to the 
famous Hygeia Hotel, only lOO yards from the Fortress, at 


the confluence of Chesapeake Bay and Hampton Roads. 
This hotel is capable of accommodating looo guests; I 
did not care to stop there, however, and sought convey- 
ance to the Little Point Comfort Hotel. We passed up the 
road to the carriage stand where conveyance may be had 
to and from the boats and accommodation between whiles 
for visitors. We encountered there the confusion of tongues 
of Babel and, after a struggle about equal with that of 
Saint Paul at Ephesus, we obtained a carriage for Hamp- 
ton about three miles distant. As we approached the 
stand, as many as thirty black drivers rushed at us pell- 
mell like so many flies after a drop of molasses, and such 
a siege as we had to stand ! Of the thirty, twenty-nine 
had to be disappointed, and competition ran high. We 
passed through the black cloud — that had no silver lin- 
ing but the silver shekels we were to pay for convey- 
ance — to make our selection of the carriages, and when 
we had done so then began the fun and sarcasm of those 
left out in the cold. All were united in the opinion that 
we had made a very bad choice, and what a chattering of 
unfavorable comment arose — "enough to deave a miller." 
" Dem wheels wants greasing," cried one ; " Dat ere top's 
shaky," said another; ''Der boss '11 never get dar, shu, 
he's so lazy," put in a third, and the whole twenty-nine were 
equally encouraging and complimentary. It was a comi- 
cal scene, and the greatest good-nature prevailed among 
the contestants. We agreed upon terms with our chosen 
driver, but when he saw our heavy baggage consisting of 
two large bags, he demurred. 

"Well, Boss," said he, looking at the "traps" with a 
serio-comic expression that only a Southern darkey can 


put on, " I'll do as I said, but I tink yer oughter gib me 
sebenty-fibe cents ef I take dem big verleses 'long. Yes, 
Massa, it am wuff twenty-fibe cents extra, shu, to take 

'* Go ahead, my boy," said I, " and if you do the job well 
you shall have the extra quarter." 

He grinned his thanks, performed his part of the con- 
tract satisfactorily, and received his " extry," leaving us 
safely at the Little Point Comfort Hotel, where we found 
excellent accommodation. The hotel had been erected the 
year previous and was kept by Mr. B. Barnard, formerly 
a New York landlord. It was furnished in a first-class 
manner, and its appointments throughout were well-suited 
to the wants of those desiring a quiet and healthful resting 
place. Mr. Barnard we found to be a good specimen of 
the " fine old English gentleman " and one well calculated 
to give perfect satisfaction to all who might place them- 
selves under his care. Mrs. Barnard, the landlady, was 
well fitted for her station and won, by her courteous and 
motherly attention, the profound respect of her guests. 
The tables were spread bountifully with all the good things 
attainable, and we can say that we found everything desir- 
able in this regard. The servants were civil and polite 
and added greatly to the credit of the well-ordered house. 

"You remember, I suppose, all about the war?" I re- 
marked to one of the waiters as my friend and myself sat 
at the table, the other guests having left. 

"Oh, yes," she replied, "I 'member all 'bout de war. 
I's older dan folks tinks I is. I'm married, and got two 
boys a'most growed up. Oh, yes, I 'member bout de war. 
My missus she died from grief cos she lose her niggers. 


But dar's one women in dis yere place dat won't die, cos 
she's mad all de time. I see her putty of en, and I ax her 
what she wear dat tick wail ober her face fur. She says 
she don't like ter see de niggers cos dey dress so nice." 

"Did you see General Butler?" 

" Oh, yes, I see de general lots of times. Dere am a 
school here call' de Butler School, an' you ought to go 
dar an' hear the chil'n sing. Oh, yes, I see de general. 
He had his headquarters ober to Newport News. You 
look jes like him, Massa. He short an' fat, jes like you 


To such as seek rest and the recuperation of their vital 
forces, I would recommend a sojourn at the Hotel Comfort, 
Hampton, Va. After dinner, on this first day of our arri- 
val, we took a 'bus for the great Hygeia Hotel and from 
there to Fortress Monroe for a call upon Gen. Eben 
Sutton of North Andover. We returned in time for sup- 
per and in the evening attended religious services con- 
ducted by Rev. Mr. Mitchell who was holding a very 
profitable series of revival meetings. 

April £. The weather had changed very much, and the 
warm June-like zephyrs came into our sleeping room in 
the morning with grateful effect. After breakfast we con- 
cluded to visit the Normal School, Hampton, of which Gen. 
S. C. Armstrong is principal, and J. H. B. Marshall, 
treasurer. This institution was incorporated in 1870 by 
special act of the General Assembly of Virginia and is 
devoted to the education of the negro and Indian youth in 
agriculture and the mechanic arts and the training of 
teachers in these branches. We called at General Arm- 
strong's house, but ascertained that he was in Boston on 


business. We went to the office and registered our names, 
and a gentleman of the establishment conducted us in 
company with several other visitors through the several 
departments. We visited a number of rooms where negro 
and Indian classes were reciting and we witnessed most 
interesting scenes in which were demonstrated the patience 
and judgment of the teachers and the proficiency of the 
pupils. The deportment manifest in the several classes 
was excellent. Some of the classes were composed entirely 
of girls, others of boys and girls (Indian and negro) mixed. 
We visited the printing office of the " Southern Workman," 
a very well-conducted and nicely printed paper published 
in the interest of the institution. Leaving the printing 
office, we visited the sewing room, shoe shop, harness shop, 
tin shop, and the saw and planing mill, where we found 
every one busily employed, the operatives being either 
graduates or students of the school. At 12 o'clock the 
dinner bell rang, and we were invited to inspect the tables 
and see the students as they came in to their meal, headed 
by their band. This was a novel and pleasant spectacle. 
The attendance at the school was then 490, of whom 92 
were Indians (70 boys and 22 girls) averaging 18 years, 
and 228 negro boys and 170 negro girls; all but 32 of the 
students boarded at the institute. The negroes were chiefly 
from Virginia and North Carolina ; the Indians represented 
some of the most ferocious tribes of the West, but they are 
tractable under good treatment, and many graduate with 
high distinction. Mr. Dudley Talbot was our conductor 
and he paid us marked civility. I was pleased to meet here 
Mr. Munroe of New York who that very day contributed 
$11,000 as an endowment. 


While at Hampton, the amusing side of the negro char- 
acter presented itself to me. I was waiting for the return 
of my friend who had gone back for an umbrella, when 
a good-looking negro with careworn features touched his 
hat to me, and, as we were going the same way, I walked 
a short distance with him. He told me about the war that 
had secured him his freedom and what he had been doing 
since. A late afflictive circumstance was that he had lost 
his mule ; he was hopeful, however, that he would be helped 
out. I gave him a small amount to assist him and, before 
we parted, I said, — 

''Having a good many meetings here this spring, are 
you not?'' 

''Yes, massa, most all de churches habin' meetings, 
ebery night, white and colored." 

"Yes," I said, "I have been in to some of them," and I 
remarked that the colored people were pretty demonstra- 
tive and that I was not used to that. 

" Well, Massa," said he, " dey can't help it. You see 
when de debil am into a man he is pretty shu to show de 
debil dar ; but when de debil am out an' de Lord in, dey 
can't help a-shouting, Massa." 

We returned to Hotel Comfort and after dinner took a 
walk around the town. It was a pleasant old place, of the 
Virginia school, with the element conspicuous. Seeing a 
long line stretched across a vacant lot and a negro at 
work with it in a very mysterious manner, I stopped and 
asked what he was doing. 

" Dat am a crab trawl," he answered readily. " It am 
most time to catch crabs, and so yer see I wants to be on 
hand early so's to get my share." 


I asked him to explain the net and the operation of 
catching the crabs. This was a new field of fishings and 
we felt the deepest interest regarding it. 

''D'ye see dis long line?" said he. "Well, dat am to 
lay on de bottom ob de ribber, and dese 'ere little short 
lines, dey am tied on, ye see, about tree feet apart wid a 
loop on de ends dat am to slip-noose on a piece ob tripe, 
cos, yer see. Boss, dat tripe am de toughest ting we ken 
find 'bout heah. It holds on 'an de crabs can't get it off. 
Well, yer see, when we haul up de long line der crabs 
dey hang on to de tripe, — dey won't let go, sar — an' 
when dey am a'most up to de boat we put a leetle han' net 
under 'em, an' den we hab 'em, shu. Oh yes, we get lots 
ob dem heah upon de ribber." 

He told his story without stopping in his work, and as 
we thanked him for his information, he seemed pleased 
that he had been able to contribute to our satisfaction. 

At Hampton a good story was current that will bear 
recording. Mr. Phoebus, proprietor of the mammoth 
Hygeia Hotel, had received the nomination of the Repub- 
licans for representative to Congress. The colored voters 
of the district outnumbered the whites two to one, and the 
sable freemen thought this a good occasion on which to 
test Mr. Phoebus's love for the colored race. Putting their 
heads together, some ten or twelve of them concluded that 
they would call on mine host of the Hygeia and spend the 
night with him. They accordingly arrayed themselves in 
all the finery they possessed and what they could borrow 
in the way of white shirts, red neckties, and brass rings, 
and waited upon the candidate. Mr. Phoebus greeted 
them cordially, when one of them said, — 



" Well, sar, spects we's come to stop with you to-night, 


Mr. P. was rather taken aback but instantly recovered 
himself, for he knew that it would not do to mix colors at 
the most popular hotel on the coast, and replied that he 
could not accommodate them as his house was full. 

"House all full, den, sar?" said the ebony spokesman. 

"Yes, all full," replied Phoebus. 

"Well, sar, den I spects, sar, you'd better sen' in your 
resignation ob dat nomination. Guess you won't get down 
to de House dis winter, sar. Dat house, I guess, is full, 
too. Don't tink you'se gwine ter walk up Pennsylbania 
abenue dis yar time, sar. Guess not much, sar. Good 
day, sar." 

Mr. Phoebus concluded not to run. 

Afril y. We were called at 5.15 this morning, and 
after breakfast, at 5.45, we started for Newport News, 
by carriage, at 6 o'clock. The morning air was bracing 
and the anticipated ride of seven miles did not seem much 
of a task. The roads were rather heavy and the land low. 
In fact, this is the character of all the ground around here, 
with no hills to relieve the monotony. All along the roads 
were little negro huts and, occasionally, what might have 
been a planter's mansion. We arrived at Newport News 
at 7 o'clock to connect with the steamer Nellie White 
which did not, however, get along until 8.10, when we 
stepped on board for Richmond, Va. Major General 
Butler had his headquarters at Newport News, and the 
commissary store that he built was still standing. The 
James river upon which the town is situated is seven 
miles wide at its mouth and is an important channel for 


trade, being navigable to Richmond; it is affected by 
the tide one hundred and fifty miles inland. Some of 
the most fearful scenes of the war were enacted upon the 
banks of the James, and the spirit that then prevailed has 
not quite died out from many a Southern heart ; not always 
manifest upon the surface, but, like our flag, it is ^ still 
there." The war brought into notice many places before 
scarcely recognized and denominated by gazetteers simply 
as " post-office " towns ; Newport News is of the number. 

We landed at Ferguson's to leave the mail and then 
proceeded on up the river, passing bug-lights and buoys, 
until we reached a second landing. These landings all 
have a line of railway, as the wharves are very long, and 
there is always a boy and a mule at the outer end when a 
steamer arrives. At '* Groves' Landing," we found the 
highest ground that we had seen at the South, and it 
seemed natural and home-like to be elevated a little above 
dead level. This place is named from its fine picnic 
grounds abounding with grand trees of old growth. The 
banks at this point are very much washed, imparting to 
the water the color of pea soup. We next touched at 
"Island Landing" (the channel below Richmond is full 
of islands), then at another landing with a tremendously 
long wharf, and at 12 o'clock reached Sandy Point, Clare- 
mont, the station of the Claremont & Danville Railroad. 
We rested here but briefly and then steamed on to other 
''landings" (Brandon's Landing next), and then Sturgeon 
Point, just half way between Richmond and Norfolk, 
sixty-five miles each way. We passed one of the old Vir- 
ginia plantations that retained its former characteristics — 
a two-story square house, with houses for the "help" (no 


longer '* chattels"), scattered all over the grounds. Here 
the shad fishers were numerous, and their nets were dis- 
played here, there, and everywhere between the ship 
channel and the shore. At 2.45 p.m. we reached City 
Point, where five of our monitors were anchored and cov- 
ered with thick canvas roofs. At 4.30 we passed through 
'* Dutch Gap," the monumental failure of General Butler 
during the war, but now employed successfully for the 
passage of vessels of light draught. Within a few miles 
of Richmond, jetties are built on each side, varying from 
100 to 200 feet, to deepen and keep the channel clear. 

We arrived at Richmond at 6 p.m., and took carriage 
for Ford's, the driver fanning himself and singing all the 
way. We were, probably, the only fares he had obtained 
for several days. The usual comical scenes occurred at 
the hotel, with the bustle of waiters and the officious ser- 
vices of the hackmen. '* Stan' roun' dar," said our Jehu ; 
'* I'll show yer how to handle dem baggage." The bag- 
gage matter adjusted, we found good rooms on the first 
floor, and, it being Saturday night, we went to the market, 
always prolific of amusement at that time when our col- 
ored brethren are particularly demonstrative. The fish- 
mongers were especially interesting with their quaint 
modes of sale, among which the cry, ** 'Ere's fresh shad 
right from de foundry," was conspicuous. The queer 
dresses, comical phizzes, and funny incidents attendant on 
the trade cannot be effectively described. The scene was 
a lively one, and an hour's time passed pleasantly in con- 
templation of human nature *Mn the rough." 

April 8 (Sunday). "Bro. Jasper's Church" is an ob- 
ject of deep interest to visitors, and at 10 o'clock we started 


to find it. We reached it after walking some eight or ten 
blocks and then found that the service would not com- 
mence till 11.30. In the mean time we took an extensive 
walk through the " Africa of Richmond " attended by a 
sable brother as a guide, who told us many things con- 
nected with the war, and what a glorious day it was when 
the colored people knew that they were free. '^Nebber 
seen sich a day fore nor since," said he, "an* nebber 'spect 
to see another ag'in like dat." We returned to the church 
in good time, and were seated in one of the front pews. 
Brother Jasper soon made his appearance, hat and cane in 
hand, and, taking his seat in the pulpit, commenced turn- 
ing over the leaves of the Bible. There was singing first, 
prayer by another reverend Black, and then Brother Jasper 
came forward. He gave out his notices, dwelt a little 
upon an ** awdination " which was to take place in the even- 
ing — giving the young preacher who was to be ordained 
a fine character — and then commenced his discourse from 
Luke vi, 22 : ** Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, 
and when they shall separate you from their company, 
and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil for 
the Son of Man's sake." 

'^Dere am a plot," he said, "to oberthrow dis yere 
church an' your pastor, but I told you, bredren and sisters, 
dat dat ar' doctrine am outside de lids of dis yere book. 
I Stan' heah in dis yere pulpit to preach de gospel, an' de 
doctrine I shall teach am contained between de lids of dis 
yere Bible. De tex' say ' an' dey shall separate you from 
deir company.' Yer'e all heah to-day singin' psalm tunes, 
yer don't sit all togedder but yer'e round heah in bunches ; 
but what are yer doin' week days ? Yer get togedder in 



de work-shops an' on de kears concoctin' plans ter ober- 
throw your pastor. You're de Korah, Dathan, and Abi- 
rams, an' I suppose you want to know who Korah, Dathan, 
an* Abiram am. Go home de whole ob yer, an' take yer 
Bibles an' read de i6th chapter ob Numbers, an' ye'll find 
out who Korah, Dathan, an' Abiram am. Dey were false 
prophets, an' sat against Moses and Aaron, an' dey were 
destroyed ; an' so will you be destroyed who plot against 
dis church. De Korah, Dathan, an Abiram ob dis congre- 
gation are jus' like a lot of dewdle-bugs. I s'pose I shall 
hab to tell you what a dewdle-bug am. Yer go out inter 
de pastur' where an oak tree hab been growin' for fifty or 
a hundred years, an' is cut down, the stump rotten an' de 
groun' mellow all round de roots ; dar's where de dewdle- 
bugs make deir holes, dere's where de dewdle-bugs lib, 
an' de little boys an' girls, when dey are playin' aroun', 
put deir mouths down to de holes an' say ' Dewdle bug, 
dewdle-bug, yer house is on fire 1 ' An' what do de dewdle 
bugs do? Dey don't stop to see about deir chil'n nor de 
house neider, but dey come out an' back right away. Dey 
nebber go for'ard, an dey am just like de Korah, Dathan, 
and Abirams. Dey go backward, backward, backward, 
an' nebber go forard." 

I have given but a small portion of Brother Jasper's ser- 
mon, but, suffice it to say, he was listened to with marked 
attention throughout. The sermon was lengthy, and, as 
the large audience left, we lingered behind to shake hands 
with the preacher who manifested much pleasure at the 
interest we took in him and the Godspeed we bespoke for 
his mission. After leaving him we returned to the hotel 
where we spent the day quietly Juntil evening, when we 


attended Brother Holmes's church. It was the occasion of 
a missionary address by a white Professor of Richmond, 
and I think I have never seen so many colored people as- 
sembled in one room before. The services were exceedingly 

April p. After breakfast we improved the time remain- 
ing of our short sojourn in Richmond by taking a carriage 
for notable places that I had before visited. We left Rich- 
mond for Brunswick, Ga., at 3.17 p.m., passing over the 
long railroad bridge by the splendid falls of the upper 
James, took tea at Welden, and there embarked on the 
sleeper for the night. We arrived at a point outside of 
Charleston, S.C., at 6.30 a.m., and proceeded on our way, 
with little of interest transpiring, for Savannah, Ga. 
Breakfast on the car was a new experience to me. Mr. 
and Mrs. Benson and a Mr. Peich of New York city we 
found very agreeable company, and we enjoyed much 
pleasant conversation with them. The patronage of the 
railroads seems to indicate increasing popularity ; the travel 
to and from Florida, which we encountered along the line, 
bore evidence of this, though at this season of the year 
most of the travel was Northward. We arrived at Jes- 
sup's Junction at 2.25 p.m., one hour late, and took dinner. 
We were compelled to wait here until 6 p.m. to connect 
with a train from " elsewhere," and in the mean time were 
afforded amusement by passages of sentiment between a 
Pennsylvania soldier and a Confederate soldier from Bruns- 
wick, Ga. The tongue sparring was lively and exciting, 
but I am happy to say that good-nature prevailed on both 
sides. Leaving Jessup's Junction, we arrived at Bruns- 
wick at 8.15 and went immediately to the Nelson House. 


April II. Arose early, and, stimulated by a good 
breakfast, I was ready to look around Brunswick and note 
the changes that had occurred since my visit of five years 
previous. These changes in the varied scenes of life add 
to the sum of human knowledge and remind us of the 
fleeting nature of everything earthly, impressing upon our 
minds the reflection that here we have no abiding place . 
As I looked out from the balcony of the hotel, my mind 
naturally turned to the incidents attending my visit to 
Brunswick thirty years before, and the scenes of that busy 
time passed before me like a diorama, with the ship Agnes 
and Capt. J. Edwards Scott the main features. The visit 
of five years before was also recalled, the scenes of that 
day placed in contrast with those which now appeared 
before me. I found that the shipping had greatly in- 
creased within the last five years, and buildings for busi- 
ness purposes were going up on every hand. Dwellings 
were also being erected, and a healthy indication prevailed 
that the old hope for the place might some time be real- 
ized. The Savannah and Florida boats still ran to Bruns- 
wick and other points ; the railroad business was on the 
increase, and everything wore a lively aspect. The Nel- 
son House had been been built four years — a pleasant 
and commodious structure. The northerly air was like 
June, balmy and refreshing. 

I called upon Mr. William Anderson, my old friend 
Friedlander's partner, and had a pleasant time in recalling 
old Brunswick as I first saw it. From there I went to see 
Mrs, John Brooks, then eighty years old, widow of my 
old-time friend. She had a wonderful memory of the 
town when it was really in its infancy, and we recalled 


many incidents of the times so interesting to both of us. 
She came from Wiscasset, Me., to Brunswick in 1853. 
Captain Scott was a native of the same place. 

I strolled around town with my friend, and during our 
walk I pointed out to him the ground of my early experi- 
ences, where the iron was landed, where the old hotel 
stood, etc., but the land was now converted into sites for 
railroad shops, and all was but as a dream of the past. 
Even statistics of the past were hard to obtain, but we did 
find files of the '' Brunswick Advocate " as far back as 
1837, from which we learned that John Davis was pro- 
prietor of the Oglethorpe House on January 8 of that year, 
James Moore in 1838, and that the house was built in 1836. 
This stunning intelligence was relieved from any serious 
effects by a paragraph stating that " the Great Western 
steamship had arrived at New York from Bristol, England, 
April 15, having sailed from Bristol March 23, 1837." 

We had dinner at i p.m. and at 2.30 took the steamer 
for St. Simon's Island, with a view to remaining for a 
few days if things were pleasant there. The wind was 
southeast and cooled the atmosphere to a grateful tem- 
perature. It was a good time for reflection and repose, 
the cares of business left behind and the mind free from 
the many perplexities and irritations that make life a bur- 
den. The body at such time recuperates, when the mind 
relaxes its vigilant control and nature has the opportunity 
of attending to its proper business. A healthy reaction 
is the result. Nature's work, under the mind's jealous 
attention, is like that of a good mechanic with an overseer's 
eye superintending his task, very likely to be spoiled from 
too close watchfulness. Our steamer was the Ruby^ on 


board of which we met Dr. R. J. Massey, the Brunswick 
correspondent of the '* Advertiser and Appeal,*' who gave 
us an interesting account of St. Simon's Island. Georgia 
was settled in February, 1733, and Governor Oglethorpe 
settled Frederica on St. Simon's sound in 1736, several 
years before the settlement of Savannah. Georgia was 
divided into two districts — the Savannah and the Frederica 
— presided over by a judge and his marshals and other 
oflBcers of the court, who officiated in their gowns and wigs 
with just as much pomp as if they were members of an 
English court. Frederica was the residence of Governor 
Oglethorpe for many years. Wesley and Whitefield la- 
bored about there with but indifferent results. 

The Spaniards of Florida were hostile to the colony, 
and a body of them came from St. Augustine to break it up. 
A battle ensued on St. Simon's Island, at a place still called 
''Bloody Marsh," in which the English were victorious, 
killing their assailants by hundreds. Bloody Marsh is on 
the easterly end of the island, about two miles from the 
lighthouse. This lighthouse, made of tabby, which had 
stood for many years, was blown up by the Southerners 
during the rebellion. There are large sawmills upon the 
island. The doctor informed us that the climate there was 
several degrees warmer in winter and cooler in summer 
than in many Southern localities. We remained upon the 
island but an hour or so, ''prospecting." St. Simon's 
Island would make a good winter resort for Northerners 
seeking health, and in the near future there will doubtless 
be a large hotel erected on this island for the accommo- 
dation of winter visitors. Boats land there from Jackson- 
ville, Fla., and from Savannah and Brunswick, Ga. 


We returned to Brunswick. This town ought to pro- 
gress faster than it does, but the wealth of Savannah gob- 
bles up all the railroads running into this part of the coun- 
try, and poor Brunswick, not blessed with capital, has to 
suffer. This seems pretty hard, and I am afraid that our 
children will grow old before it becomes the very large 
city its founders contemplated, that was to rival Savannah. 
It is a pity that such a good seaport, with such natural ad- 
vantages, should not fare better. 

April 12. We took breakfast at 6.30 and soon after 
embarked again on the Ruby^ bag and baggage, for St. 
Simon's Island. Captain Dart of the Ruby^ I found to 
be the son of one of my old Brunswickers, who had died 
only six weeks before, aged eighty-three years. I had a 
pleasant talk with Captain D. on the subject of fishing in 
St. Simon's sound. Fish are abundant and the varieties 
many, the principal ''catch" in the sound being whiting, 
drumfish, rockfish, bluefish, trout, bass, mullet, and sheeps- 
head; on the outer banks red snapper, grouper, and 
blackfish; besides there are oysters, clams, and crabs in 
abundance. Yet, although fish are so abundant and in 
such variety, there are really none to make fishing for 
market a business, and the query arose in my mind why 
some Northern men had not ere this established fishing 
stations in these waters with Savannah and St. Simon's 
their headquarters. Terribly stupid, it seemed to me, for 
the people here to keep this rich sea-mine un worked. 
Another thought presented itself regarding the lack of 
enterprise at the South. Here right handy was all the 
timber growing and all the material to be used in making 
vessels, and yet all ^unimproved. The^stump of the tree 


that was cut down to make the stem of the Constitution 
still remains on St. Simon's Island. 

We arrived at 8.30 a.m. and went immediately to Mrs. 
Arnold's pleasant boarding-house, a large square edifice, 
with a veranda all around it, facing the southwest. The 
air was truly delicious and admitted of no thought but the 
charm of drinking in pleasant draughts of nature's recu- 
perative element. Rheumatism must, it seemed, " get up 
and get " when brought in contact with such a balmy at- 
mosphere. After dinner, we returned to the piazza where 
we sat awhile, I keeping my mind easy, for my old enemy 
did not dare to show head nor shoulder for fear of getting 
scorched. None can desire more than an easy mind and 
a body free from pain, and here the mind ran on in pleas- 
ant reverie while nature cared for the laden receptacle of 
food. Better than " good news from a far country " is 
that condition where " good digestion waits on appetite 
and health on both." The roses were in full bloom 
just in front of us, and, only a short distance in the 
rear, saws were buzzing to the tune of 100,000 feet of 
lumber per diem, 600,000 per week, and 31,000,000 per 

We procured a wagon and started for a visit to the light- 
house. The vehicle was not unlike a small lumber or hay 
cart with heavy wheels ; the horse and fixings were very 
fair for that country. The driver was a negro boy, fully 
up to the ragged standard, who sat upon a stool in front, 
while we occupied the wagon seat which had no cushion, 
thus compelling us to stand or sit upon our own resources. 
The start was not swift, and as we proceeded over the 
rough and rutty road, not sufficiently traveled to be any- 


where smooth, we felt that, like Jordan, 'twas " a hard road 
to trabble." On our way we passed a negro settlement, 
the houses of the framed kind, but cheaply built ; then a 
schoolhouse of rough exterior, with from five to a dozen 
children in attendance, and then to some tabby houses oc- 
cupied by whites. These houses are built of cement and 
shells, the material growing harder by exposure to the 
atmosphere. We next plunged into the woods, where the 
road dwindled into nothing more than a Northern cart 
path, and soon we lost our way, having taken the wrong 
track. Still going on, we came to a negro hut. We 
accosted the occupant : 

"Can we go to the lighthouse by this road?" 
"Yer on de wrong road," was the reply; "Yer oughter 
hab took de road 'way back dar ; yer can go dis way but 
it will take yer out ter de beach, 'way 'bove der light, an' 
is farder. Ef yer want ter go, yer can follow my cart 
tracks, an' yer will come out all right." 

Three generations of negroes, comprising fifteen in num- 
ber, lived in that little framed house, and they were all out 
on inspection. We started as directed and for a short 
time got along well enough, but soon the palmetto leaves, 
low down, covered all but the dim outline of an imprac- 
ticable cart track, and we went thumping and bumping 
along among the pine-tree roots, grazing the trees right and 
left. Presently we came to a "fork," and now the question 
arose, "Which should we take?" When a man guesses 
about a thing regarding which he knows nothing, he gen- 
erally makes a mistake, and we proved no exception to 
the rule, for after a few minutes we brought up against a 
fence. There was a gate, however, but we did not open 


It, as the stentorian voice of a stalwart negro working in 
a field near by, hailed us with the remark, — 

" Yer on de wrong track, Boss, if yer goin' to der light- 
house. Yer can go dis way, but yer better go back an' 
take der cart track to der beach." 

We retraced our way but did not go back far enough, 
and mistaking another place for the '* fork," we took a nigh 
cut and soon found ourselves " all at sea " while looking 
for the beach. We wandered around in the woods for 
some time, now and then coming out into small openings, 
and by going this way and that we managed to find our 
way out. We drove past the entrance to the lighthouse 
grounds and shortly found ourselves down upon the beach 
on the easterly side, a mile or more from our destination. 
The beach was as hard and smooth as a billiard table, the 
island on its entire south and east sides being skirted by a 
beach, with no rock-bound coast. We reached the light- 
house at last, and the keeper came out to greet us. 

" Good afternoon, gentlemen," said he. *' Get out and 
come into the house, where you can sit down and rest 

This we did, for the jaunt had given us an appetite for 
the rest that the keeper invited us to. 

" How long have you been keeper here? " I asked him. 

"Only a short time here," he replied. ''I used to be 
over on Little Cumberland ; was there eight years." 

" Don't you get lonesome here? " 

'* Well, 'tis a kind of lonesome place, but we manage to 
get along ; my wife looks after the hens, and we go out 
occasionally and shoot some game." 

" Does your wife shoot? " 


** Shoot ! I guess youM think so if you should come out 
in the kitchen and see three fine ducks she shot this after- 
noon. Shoot ! ril bet she'll beat me any time. Come, 
let us go up into the light ; I guess it won't tire you out." 

We followed, as requested, and saw that the inside of the 
lighthouse had been newly whitewashed. 

"There," said he, pointing to the walls, "don't you call 
that pretty good whitewashing, and I didn't spill a drop, 
scarcely, from top to bottom." 

After we had reached the top : 

"There, gentlemen," said he, "you see one of the finest 
lights in the country. It is getting towards night, and I'll 
take off the curtains. Here I sit all the time during my 
half of the night. I'm not like some fellows who turn 
down the lamps and go to sleep. No, sir ; that isn't me. 
Now come, I want you to go down and see the wife's 
hens. She's got some of the nicest hens you ever saw." 

I have thus wagged the keeper's tongue instead of my 
own, but while he was talking I was taking in the view 
from the lantern, which was very fine. Jekyl, Cumber- 
land, and the surrounding country were in full sight loom- 
ing up before us. The old lighthouse I alluded to as hav- 
ing been blown up by the Southerners during the war was 
built just after the war of 1812. When the contract was 
drawn, it was so worded that stone, or other material 
equally good, should be employed in the construction of 
this lighthouse. This was a stroke of shrewdness on the 
part of the contractor who owned all the old tabby houses 
in Frederica and could work all their material of shell 
and cement into the new lighthouse. The present light- 
house was built just after the war ; it is constructed of 


brick and is 105 feet high. The brick was made in the 

We left the lighthouse and the beach, well pleased with 
our visit, taking back for our next day's dinner the ducks 
that the keeper's wife had shot. We again mounted to our 
unpadded seat in the wagon and moved on our way back 
to the hotel. We were more fortunate in returning, as we 
came back the regular way. We passed a good many 
negro habitations and a negro church. This was a per- 
fectly plain framed building with shutters instead of win- 
dows. In front, suspended from a pole run out from the 
side of the house, was a piece of an old circular mill 
saw, about two feet long by eighteen inches wide, that 
served as a bell for the church; when this was struck, 
the sound could be heard at a distance of two miles. We 
arrived at the "hotel" at 6.30, well satisfied with our after- 
noon's excursion, more interesting from the varied inci- 
dents attending our search for the lighthouse. 

April /J. After a good night's rest and breakfast I en- 
joyed a lounge upon the piazza overlooking St. Simon's 
sound, and devoted the customary time to writing up my 
diary. To sojourners the island is almost "out of the 
world," so to speak, but it is a comfort to be where one 
can commune with nature and let the great, bustling, 
restless, discordant world, with its politics, its strife, its 
greatness, and littleness, take care of itself for a season. 
The mail is the connecting link that still keeps the recluse 
in touch with the outer world, however he may wish to 
forget it. 

At II A.M. we visited the immense sawmill belonging to 
the " Georgia Land and Lumber Company," organized by 


W. E. Dodge, Esq., of New York, owning some 300,000 
acres of land in the interior of Georgia. There were then 
100 men employed cutting timber in the forests, to be 
taken by rail thirty miles to the Altamaha river, from 
whence it was to be rafted down to the mill ; one hun- 
dred men were ready there to receive it and reduce it to 
lumber. Some seasons double the number of men are 
employed. Two fine circular and gang saws were in con- 
slant use. All the slabs and refuse were burned. Mr. 
Warren Fuller, a Massachusetts man, had charge of this 
mill, and he resided on the island eight months of the 
year. We found him a gentleman in manners, interested 
in church and society, and superintendent of the Sunday 
School. On our return we enjoyed a dinner that could 
hardly be surpassed at the North ; fresh fish, teal, black 
duck, green peas, tomatoes, cabbage, potatoes, rice, apples, 
lemon cakes, and tea. Good enough for any one North or 
South ! 

April 14.. The morning opened pleasantly with the 
wind a little easterly. At 8.30 we started out for a walk, 
and at the wharf met Dr. Massey. Afterwards went to a 
small plantation to the eastward and, on coming to a fence, 
inquired for Mr. Johnson. The person addressed was one 
of the staple population. 

"Nex* house, sar," said he; *'Yer see de missus settin 
by de winder dar." 

Upon reaching the house pointed out to us, we interro- 
gated another " image of God cut in ebony." 

*' Is this Mr. Johnson's house ? " 

"Yes, sar." 

"Is he at home?" 


*'No, sar; he out back ob de house to work. Heah, 
you little gal, go show de gemman whar yer fader 


The girl trotted off to find him, and it was amusing to 
see the little thing, one of the standard color, carry her 
baby brother, a chap about the size of a black duck, on 
her back, she clasping her hands behind her, and he sit- 
ting on her arms with his arms around her neck. We 
found Mr. Johnson, and he was very communicative ; he 
was in Tallahassee, Fla., when he became free. 

"Oh, dat was a great day," he said, "when the jubilee 
come, an' de slabes were all sot free. De white Yankee 
come an' took me and twenty-fibe bosses, all ob us, up to 
Montgomery, Alabama." 

To the inquiry about his family he smilingly said, — 

"Oh, yes. Boss, I has got seben chil'n." 

"You have a young wife, then?" I said. 

"Yes, sar, my fuss wife she had seben chil'n, an' she 
died, an' all the chil'n but one. Yes, I hab had twice 
seben chil'n, fourteen in all." 

"How old is the oldest?" 

"Oh, well, I reckon he is about so old" — holding his 
hand about three feet from the ground. 

" Can you read ? " 

" No, sar, but I's gwine to teach der chil'n to read, so 
dey shall know der right from der wrong." 

" Why don't you learn ? " 

"Well, yer see, massa, my eyesight am gibin' out, but I 
want the chil'n to larn so us dey can read ter me." 

" Have you a church here ? " 

" Oh, yes, sar ; I goes to der Fus' Baptist African church. 


We hab a gemman come down from Savannah once in two 
months, who preaches to us." 

^ Any other preacher ? '* 

^ Oh, yes, sar ; we hab anoder man dat preaches when 
de Oder don't." 

We went from Mr. Johnson's to another place and in- 
terviewed a negro who has spent all his life on the island. 
He was a servant before the war and travelled with his 
mistress. After he was free he got $15 per month, which 
princely income he was then enjoying as a free man. 
Such interviews are interesting, inasmuch as they draw 
out the negro history before and since the war, and give 
inklings of the character of this class of ^* Americans called 
Africans," as termed by Mrs. Child. 

We took dinner at 12.10 and afterwards sat upon the 
piazza awaiting the coming of Dr. Massey who was to 
call and see us. We sat and talked with him for an hour 
about the early days of Brunswick, including the incident 
of my first going there in 1853. The Doctor, in his letter 
to the Brunswick "Advertiser and Appeal," had made men- 
tion in a paragraph of some facts regarding myself. The 
Doctor was called away by professional business, much to 
my regret. In the evening we called at a little tabby 
building by ''the store" and interviewed the barber. He 
gave me a meaty text for a temperance discourse : '' This 
would be the worst place in the world if they sold liquor." 

April 75 (Sunday). We attended service in the 
''Union Church," and listened to Rev. Mr. Dana, a young 
preacher, who spoke from the text, "And the last shall be 
first and the first last." The hymns were appropriate and 
the singing good. The atmosphere was very warm, but a 


little breeze from the sea tempered it somewhat and ren- 
dered it more agreeable. I felt that I had never been in 
a more quiet place upon the Sabbath. We took a long 
walk after dinner, which led us into the interior of the 
island past one or two little negro churches, one with the 
saw bell hanging out in front. We went as far as the 
little white tabby settlement. One new man had just come 
here and was working some twenty acres from which to 
supply the markets of Savannah and New York with green 

April i6. This day was to wind up our stay upon St. 
Simon's Island. We had seen enough to convince us of 
the beauty of the place and its availability as a place of 
resort in winter ; it needed but a hotel to make it popular. 

How dear to my heart are the scenes of St. Simon's, 

As fond recollection brings up the sojourn, 
The cabbage, palmetto, green peas, and tomato. 

And ducks from the ** lighthouse," done just to a turn. 
That queer little island. 
That health-giving island, 
That sleep-yielding island. 
That lies by the sea. 

How well I remember the ride through the wild wood, 
Where the oak and the pine and the palmetto grow. 
The cart track that wildered the boy's stupid driving, 
And the horse that we had, so provokingly slow. 
That St. Simon's turnout. 
That hard-seated fitout, 
That darkey's wild drive out, 
Down there to the sea. 

And now, far removed from that loved situation. 

Fond tears of regret will obtrusively flow. 
When memory recalls the St. Simon diversion. 

And sighs for its pleasures wherever we go. 


That pleasant bright island, 
That sunshiny island, 
That health-giving island, 
That lies by the sea. 

The evening up to 9 o'clock was passed very pleasantly 

in Mrs. Arnold's family circle in chatting about matters 

relating to the North and South, until the plash of the 

paddle wheels of the steamer City of Bridgton^ coming 

through St. Simon's sound, apprised us that the time of 

our departure was at hand, and we must bid good-bye to 

the island and those who had made our visit there so 


pleasant. We took the steamer at a little before 10 
o'clock and, the order being speedily given to "let go," we 
were once more steaming through the narrow channels 
that characterize these Southern waters. We remained on 
deck for an hour or two watching the various tutns and 
windings among the marshes, until St. Simon's light grew 
dim in the distance. It is pleasant to notice the skill 
displayed in navigating a boat while making the inland 

On the way from St. Simon's Island to Savannah the 
boat stopped at " Doboy," where, lying upon the wharf, 
among other things to be taken on board, was a lot of stur- 
geon. ''Well, Sambo," I asked the black deck hand, 
''what have you for freight to-night?" 

"Oh, lots ob dem sturgeons, Massa." 

"Where were they caught? " 

"Right heah in de Altamaha ribber. Set trawls for 'em 
nights. Kotch lots ob 'em." 

"You seem to have a good many to-night." 

"Oh, dat ain't much, dat ain't. Dere ain't moah dan 


sebenty-foah. Dat am a small lot. Sometimes we carry 
a hundred or a hundred an' fifty." 

"They must be fond of sturgeon in Savannah.*' 

"Dey don't eat 'em dar." 

"What do they do with them? " 

"Oh, dey ship 'em up Norf an' can 'em ; den dey bran' 
dem *sammon,' an' sen' 'em down Souf for de Suveners to 
eat. Yah! yah! yah!" 

Leaving Doboy we turned in for the rest of the night* 

April 17. Our fellow passengers revealed by the morn- 
ing light presented a collection of very ordinary appear- 
ance. The steamer's route was so twining that though we 
could see the steeples of Savannah but three miles away 
ip a direct line we were compelled to travel from thirteen 
to fifteen miles to reach the city. When at last we arrived, 
all the passengers were on deck, eagerly looking at the 
various objects presented to view, — Fort Jackson, rice 
fields, jetty construction, lumber loading, etc., and the 
several wharves lined with ships engaged in foreign com- 
merce. We left the Bridgton and went directly to the 
Pulaski House, a place of such interest to me. My 
name was first registered on the books "Joseph Warren 
Smith, November 8, 1853 ; " second time, March, 1878 : 
third time, April 17, 1883. The last time, Joseph W. 
Smith called for letters, and the clerk said, " Oh yes, we 
have been looking for you," handing me quite a package 
of letters, — as many as twenty. (I received twenty-one 
at Richmond.) After reading my letters, we went out to 
breathe the fresh air, but found, instead, clouds of dust 
that had been blowing about the streets from time immemo- 
rial, and had grayed the whiskers and inflamed the lungs 


of past generations. We were glad to retreat to dinner, 
after which we took the street car for Thunderbolt and 
Bonaventura, along with quite a number of our fellow pas- 
sengers on the steamer Bridgton, This car ride was very 
amusing, illustrating the slow and slack way in which 
everything is done in this part of the country. We walked 
back from Thunderbolt to Bonaventura, and, after looking 
around for half an hour, returned by the car. It was get- 
ing late in the afternoon when we arrived, but we thought 
we would call at the Boston and Savannah Steamship 
office and bespeak passage for Boston, and were lucky 
enough to secure the last stateroom. No. 29, on the upper 
deck of steamer City of Columbus. I closed the day by 
writing letters and part of my journal, and then retired for 
the night. 

April 18. Took a walk after breakfast with nothing 
especial happening. I improved the occasion by calling 
on my friend John Cunningham, of the old firm of Clag- 
horn & Cunningham associated with my visit in 1853, and 
I had a pleasant interview with him, during which he told 
me about his trade and failure, together with his expe- 
riences before and since the war. Mr. Claghorn had died 
since 1878. After leaving Mr. Cunningham I went to see 
Octavius Cohen, son of Octavius Cohen of the firm of 
Cohen & Fosdick, with which I did business in '53 and '54, 
and then called on Mr. Baldwin, whose father I likewise 
remembered as partner in the firm of Brigham, Baldwin & 
Company. It was at Savannah as at Brunswick ; the boys 
of my early visit had taken the place of my contemporaries 
at that time, and but few were then old enough to remem- 
ber the incident of the ship Agnes. I went down to the 


wharf and saw the steamer Tallahassee sail for New York, 
and then went on board the City of Colv/mbus^ where I 
met Mr. Joseph Shattuck atid two of his daughters, who 
were to be our fellow passengers to Boston. While look- 
ing at some clay in a lighter alongside, it was remarked, 
pleasantly, by one in authority, — 

" There is some clay that is going into candy for you 
Northerners to eat." 

I turned the laugh on him by relating the story of the 
sturgeon, canned as salmon, for the Southerners to eat. 
I spent the evening very pleasantly with Mr. Shattuck and 
retired early. 

April I g. I went out to the market before breakfast. 
The town was on the quivive in anticipation of the arrival 
that morning of President Arthur, who was expected to 
stay until Friday. He had arrived at Tybee the evening 
previous, after a very rough passage from St. Augustine, 
Fla. He was to have a reception in the Savannah Ex- 
change. As we were to leave in the City of Columbus 
before that time, the opportunity was not afforded us for 
paying our respects. Meanwhile, we amused ourselves 
by looking about the city. One point of interest to visit 
was the park, and a half hour's sojourn there well repaid 
us. This park, one of the ''lungs of the city," had every- 
thing well arranged for convenience and comfort, and its 
advantages were generally availed of by citizens who 
sought relief from the city's heat in the enjoyment of the 
balmy air and cooling shadows that it afforded. From the 
park we went to visit the library and reading room at the 
W. B. Hodgson Hall. Here were several models of 
steamers of old and new construction. One was that of a 


steamer that crossed the ocean in 1819, the first that ever 
dared the undertaking ; on the opposite side of the room 
was the model of the steamer City of Savannah^ built 
in 1876, that ran for some time between New York and 
Savannah, and then was in the Philadelphia line. A full- 
length portrait of W. B. Hodgson graces the hall that 
bears his name. We returned to the hotel for dinner, after 
which we bade good-bye to the gentlemanly clerk of the 
house, and left for the City of Columbus at 3 p.m., where 
we arrived just as Mr. Shattuck and his daughters were 
driving upon the dock. At 4 p.m. we started and moved 
slowly down the river among the anchored shipping which 
was dressed in gay attire to welcome the President. We 
passed, at a distance, the United States steamship Talla^ 
foosa^ having him on board. Savannah has nearly five 
miles of wharves, of which one obtains a good view on 
leaving the city. We passed Fort Jackson and had a good 
view of the rice plantations along the shore. We moved 
very slowly, as our draught of water was as much as the 
channel admitted, and, as it was, we must have touched 
along the muddy bottom. We passed Tybee at 6.30 p.m., 
and soon the bell buoy and lightship. The last buoy passed, 
and then we found ourselves on the open sea, shaping our 
course about northeast. Supper over, we strolled upon 
deck in pleasant conversation with Mr. Shattuck. We 
retired at 10.30 and slept till near 7 next morning, ^ rocked 
in the cradle," wrapped in happy dreams. 

April 20. We were ploughing along at the rate of 12 
knots an hour, and that meant our arrival in Boston on 
the 23d. The fresh air stimulated appetite for breakfast at 
8 o'clock, though there were not so many at table as the 


day previous. I was introduced to the master, Capt. S. 
E. Wright, and found him a very agreeable person. We 
were now opposite Frying Pan Shoals and witnessing the 
performances of a school of porpoises, some quite near the 
ship. The sea was white-capped, but comparatively smooth, 
though the steamer rolled somewhat. A colored rever- 
end, T. G. Campbell, was among the passengers, and I lis- 
tened to an argument between him and a New Bedford 
man, in which the latter got terribly worsted. The sub- 
ject of discussion was the existence of a God. The col- 
ored divine had an exalted idea of human nature, and gave 
evidence that those who awakened him on " Freethinking " 
or IngersoUism would find their match. At 12 o'clock we 
still maintained our rate of speed (12 knots) and nearly 
all the passengers were on deck studying, reading, and 
chatting. The sea, above all places, for pure air and ap- 
petizing influences I The water was blue and clear and 
in striking contrast with the muddy rivers, sounds, and 
creeks of Georgia and Florida. At dinner we enjoyed a 
pleasant conversation with a man who had been in Florida 
since the fall before and had become very familiar with 
the country. There was likewise an elderly gentleman 
from New Bedford on board, who was at St. Simon's 
Island at the time of our visit. About 4 p.m. the wind 
veered around to northeast and became quite a gale. The 
staunch ship, however, breasted it in most approved man- 
ner, her prow unswerving in the contest. 

April 21. We were still making good time, with many 
of the passengers seasick, obliged to succumb to the inex- 
orable command of old ocean. Mr. Shattuck bore him- 
self up sturdily, but his daughters were both ** under the 


weather." To the sailor, and those unajEfected by the 
commotion of the waters, a rough sea gives pleasure ; but 
to the susceptible, the *^ sad sea waves " are sad indeed^ 
and the song with that name they don't care about sing- 
ing, except when on shore and accompanied by a piano. 
We were reminded that we were not alone on the deep by 
passing a steamer, supposed to be one of the Charleston 
line to New York. We whiled away the morning hour by 
gathering in a group, such as were able, at the stern of 
the steamer, and discussing general matters which we 
settled to universal satisfaction. After dinner we took up 
the thread of talk, and continued in conversation, diverted 
occasionally by the appearance of small craft going north 
or south. The close of day left us looking for mackerel 
catchers off the coast, some thirty miles away^i but none 
appeared. The evening was delightful, the moon in the 
ascendant, and we exchanged the thought of the land we 
were approaching for that of the land of nod. 

April 22 (Sunday). This morning we found that the 
weather had changed, the wind east, and the prospect not 
very favorable for the day. Long Island was now in 
sight, and we should pass Block Island about ii o'clock, 
crossing over to Vineyard Sound. One New York steamer 
was in sight and several schooners, close in shore, were 
making their way southward. We passed Montauk Point* 
reached Block Island at 12 m. and made for Gay Head. 
I had an interesting conversation with a gentleman from 
Fort Fairfield, Me., on the Aroostook river. He had been 
in Florida since January, enjoying the warmth of the 
Southern climate, in such contrast with his home^ where* 
he told me, he had seen the mercury 43 degrees below zero. 


At 2.30 we passed Sow and Pigs and Cuttyhunk lights, 
also a mackerel fleet of twenty schooners, lots of coasters, 
and three-masted schooners, and a steamer bound for New 
York, heading into Vineyard Sound. The wind was still 
east, and rain threatening. Passed the islands at the en- 
trance of Buz2:ard's Bay, and saw many vessels at anchor 
in Tarpaulin Cove. At 3.45 p.m. we passed Woods HoU, 
where vessels were lying at the Pacific Guano Works, and 
at 4.30 Oak Bluff, and saw a large fleet of vessels making 
for Holmes HoU to avoid the coming storm. The wind 
was southeast, and everything indicated a " dirty night." 
The weather was cold, and a Dutchman on board, who had 
packed his overcoat in his trunk, gave us some square talk 
about leaving his coat where he could not get at it. Others 
had done the same, thinking they would need neither under- 
clothing nor overcoats. At 5.50 we passed Cross Rip light- 
ship and caught a dim glimpse of Nantucket ; then shaped 
our course for Massachusetts Bay. At 8 p.m. a snow- 
storm set in ; at 9.30 we sighted Nausett light and at 10 
made Highland light. We were at the wharf in Boston, 
snug and fast, by 4 a.m., and took the train for Andover 
at 7.30. 

The City of Columbus was built by John Roach at 
Philadelphia, in 1878, for the New York & Savannah 
line of steamships, and was bought by the Boston & 
Savannah Steamship Company. The Gate City was 
built also by Roach, and the two formed the line between 
Boston and Savannah. 

Alas for the Columbus 1 She was wrecked off Gay 
Head in January, 1884. 



WAS staying for the winter at Pinehurst, 
N.C., and thought I would like to look in on 
Brunswick, Ga., once more. So when Mrs. 
Smith and I left Pinehurst in February on a 
little journey to Florida, we planned to take in Bruns- 
wick on our way. We arrived at Brunswick via Everett 
Junction at 6.30 p.m., having enjoyed for a part of our 
journey the company of a Mr. Meyer, who gave me 
a good deal of information about Brunswick of to-day. 
A peculiar but interesting feeling came over me as I 
stepped from the train at Brunswick, and I could scarcely 
realize that I was the young man who came there in 1853 
to send the ship Agnes away to New York. There was 
not a thing to show where the ship Agnes discharged her 
cargo of railroad iron. The new Oglethorpe House had 
been built upon the site of the old house of the same 
name. In 1853 the ground in front of the hotel bordering 
on the sea was marshy ; this had all been filled in and 
built upon. The land where I piled up the iron and, in 
fact, all the land in the rear of the present Oglethorpe was 
taken by the railroad station and railroad tracks. 

We had an amusing experience at Everett when we 
were obliged to wait some three hours to make the con- 
nection for Brunswick by rail. We asked a man at the 
station, who was evidently connected with the railroad, 
what he had to show us. He was quite ready to talk and 
said, — 


''We have alligators, galley rippers, raftsmen, poor 
whites and rich niggers, chills and fever, and fish." He 
proved to be a genius, and when we asked him about the 
razor-back hogs running about loose, he said, — 

''These are not razor backs ; these are fat hogs. If you 
want to see a razor-back hog, you must go into the woods. 
Why, they are just like a bicycle, they have got to keep 
travelling or they would tip over, they are so thin ; put a 
newspaper on one side of them and you could read through 

"What about the frogs? " said I. 

"Oh, they are not making much noise now, you ought 
to wait till evening ; the concert begins then and when I 
go to bed it is at its highest pitch." 

"Do the lumbermen and raftsmen ever trouble you?" 

" Oh, yes, they come out of the woods and go to the 
saloon and get full, and we have lots of trouble with them. 
We are obliged to keep weapons to save ourselves." 

Everett looked quite deserted except when trains hap- 
pened to meet there to pass one another. 

Mrs. Smith and I went out for a walk in Brunswick and 
took the Main street down a few streets below Gloucester 
street and crossed over to the docks wending our way to- 
wards home along the water front. There were three large 
steamers belonging to the Mallory line taking in a cargo 
of turpentine and resin, and one steamer unloading rail- 
road iron. We came up as far as a point straight down 
from the Oglethorpe and found nothing to show that a ship 
ever laid anywhere near there in the days of 1853. The 
land had all been filled in and the territory was all owned 
and occupied by the Southern Railroad Company. But I 


could see in my mind's eye just how everything looked in 
1653 and 1854. ^ ^^^^^ ^ raikoad down upon the wharf 
and brought the railroad iron on a platform car up to a 
point above highwater mark and neatly piled the iron in 
eight square piles ; but nothing remained to show where I 
landed the iron on the shore. Brunswick had taken a 
good start since the days of my first visit and there seemed 
to be a good deal of young blood in the place. With grow- 
ing railroad facilities it should become a good lumber, 
cotton, and turpentine shipping-port for years to come. 

We called one evening upon Mrs. Charles Moore who 
was connected with the family of the late John Brooks of 
Wiscasset. John Brooks, Jr., is still living near Bruns- 
wick. We also called on William Anderson, the partner 
of the late Mr. Friedlander who had died some twelve 
years before. Through Mr. Anderson I met John E. 
DeBignon whose uncle Charles I knew in 1853. Nearly 
all of my former acquaintances who were living in 1853 
had passed away. 

At our table at the hotel, there were several young men 
who were in business in Brunswick, among them two law- 
yers and a clerk in the Southern Railroad office. One of 
the lawyers, Mr. F. E. Twitty, has had an office in Bruns- 
wick for seven years, and he told me many interesting 
things about Brunswick of to-day. Mr. CD. Ogg also 
supplied me with a good deal of information. 

A drive about the city showed me the great changes that 
had taken place and I was pleased to see the improve- 
ments in the business section where substantial brick 
structures gave the place the appearance of a prosper- 
ous city. 


I met Capt. Urban Dart of the little steamer Egmont 
which plies between Brunswick and St. Simon*s Island. 
Seventeen years ago, in company with the late Capt. W. 
F. Goldthwaite, I went down to St. Simon's Island and 
stayed a week at Mrs. Arnold's boarding house. 

Jeykl Island, which I had visited years before, had been 
purchased by influential citizens of New York who had 
spent much money in beautifying the island. A fine 
steam yacht plies between Jekyl Island and Brunswick. 

I left Brunswick with the good wishes of all my old 
friends and my new acquaintances. After a month's stay 
in St. Augustine, Savannah, Augusta, and Camden, S.C., 
I returned home and was in Ando ve r on April first. 





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